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Collier's New Encyclopedia, Volume 4

Greek Church
Greek Church, The Eastern Church, That Of The Old Eastern Empire, Which, Prior To The Turkish Conquest, Had Its Metropolis At Constantinople, As Dis Tinguished From The Western Church, Which Had Its Capital At Rome; The Church Of The People Speaking The Greek Language Rather Than That Of The Roman ...

Greenland
Greenland, An Island Situated In The N. E. Of North America, From Which It Is Separated By Davis Straits, Baffin Bay And Smith Sound; Area About 849,000 Square Miles. A Part Of The Island Belongs To Denmark; Its Area Is 46,740 Square Miles. A Greater Part Of Coast Is Yet ...

Grisons
Grisons (gre-zen'), Or Graubun Den, A Canton Of Switzerland; The Largest And The Most Thinly Peopled; Bounded By Tyrol And Lombardy; Area, 2,773 Square Miles; Capital, Chur. The Whole Canton Is An Assemblage Of Moun Tains Intersected By Narrow Valleys. These Last Form Three Groups, Of Which The First And ...

Guatemala
Guatemala (gwb.-ta-m5.15.), A Re Public Of Central America, Bounded By Mexico, Belize, Honduras, San Salva Dor, Gulf Of Honduras, And The Pacific Ocean; Area, 48,290 Square Miles; Pop. About 2,000,000. Number Of Depart Ments, 22; And Capital, Guatemala La Nueva. Pop. 90,000. Topography.—the Country Is Exceed Ingly Mountainous And Elevated, ...

Guinea
Guinea (gin'i), The Name Formerly Given A Large Section Of The W. Coast Of Africa, From The Senegal, In About 14° N. Lat., To Cape Negro, In 16° S. Lat. It Was Divided Into Two Parts, Upper And Lower Guinea, The Dividing Line Being Taken Variously As The Equator, The ...

Gull
Gull, The English Name Of Larus, A Genus Of Natatorial Birds. They Are Wide Ly Distributed Along The Shores Of The Several Seas And Oceans, Feeding Vora Ciously On Fish. They Breed On Rocky Headlands, Making A Rude Nest In Which They Lay From Two To Four Eggs. Many Of ...

Gun Powder
Gun Powder, Like Many Other So Called "modern Inventions," Gun Powder Appears To Have Been Known To The Chi Nese Several Centuries Before Its Invention In Europe, Whether We Ascribe The In Vention To Roger Bacon In The 13th Cen Tury Or To Friar Schwartz In The 14th. Its Earliest ...

Guy Of Warwick
Guy Of Warwick, The Hero Of One Of The Most Ancient And Popular Of Early English Metrical Romances. It Is A Pure Ly English Story Of The 13th Century, Re Lated To The Dano-saxon Romance Of "havelok" By Its Allusions To Danish Wars In England, And To The French "king ...

Gyroscope
Gyroscope (jir'6), An Instrument Constructed By M. Foucault, To Make The Rotation Of The Earth Visible. The Prin Ciple On Which It Proceeds Is This—that, Unless Gravity Intervenue, A Rotating Body Will Not Alter The Direction In Which Its Permanent Axis Points. In The Gyro Scope There Is A Rotating ...

Haiti
Haiti, A Republic On The Island Of Haiti, W. I.; Bounded By The Dominican Republic, Atlantic Ocean, And Caribbean Sea; Area 11,072 Square Miles; Pop. About 2,500,000; Port-au-prince, Capital (1919) 101,272; Other Important Towns Are: Cape Haitien (19,000), Cayes (12, 000), Gonalves (30,000), Port De Paix (10,000). Topography.—the Country Is ...

Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus (-nas'sus) (origi Nally Called Zephyria), A Greek City Of Caria, Asia Minor, On The Ceramic Gulf. It Was Founded By Dorian Colonists From Trcezen, And Defended By Several Cita Dels, One Of Which, Salmacis, Was Deemed Impregnable. Early In Its History It Be Came One Of The Cities Of ...

Halifax
Halifax, A City, Port Of Entry, Capi Tal Of The Province Of Nova Scotia, And County-seat Of Halifax Co., On Halifax Harbor; And On The Intercolonial And The Dominion Atlantic Railroads. It Is The Largest Community And Only City In The Province. The Harbor Of Halifax Is One Of The ...

Halle
Halle (harle), A City Of Prussian Saxony, Known As Halle An Der Seale, To Distinguish It From Other Places Of The Same Name In Germany; On The Right Bank Of The Saale And On Several Small Islands Of The River; 20 Miles N. W. Of Leipsic. As An Important Railway ...

Hamburg
Hamburg (ham'borg), A City Of Germany, One Of The Three Formerly In Dependent Hansa Towns, And The Greatest Commercial Port On The Continent Of Eu Rope; 80 Miles From The North Sea, On The N. Branch Of The Elbe. The Town Of Altona Adjoins It On The W. From The ...

Hammer
Hammer, A Tool Used For Applying The Force Of Impact, Either For The Pur Pose Of Beating Malleable Materials Into A Required Form, Or For Driving Nails, Wedges, Etc. The Common Hand Hammer Consists Of An Iron Head, Usually Faced With Steel, Fixed Crosswise On A Wooden Handle. When One ...

Handel
Handel (han'del), Properly Haen Del (hen'del), George Frederick, A Great German Composer; Born In Halle,. Prussia, Feb. 23, 1685. The Passion Which He Early Showed For Music Over Came His Father's Opposition To Training Him As A Musician, And At The Age Of 7 He Was Placed Under The Tuition ...

Hannibal
Hannibal, The Great Carthaginian General; Born In 247 B. C. He Was The Son Of Hamilcar Barca And When Nine Years Of Age Swore, By His Father's Command, Eternal Enmity To The Romans, As The Condition Of Accompanying Him To Spain. He Learned The Art Of War Under His Father ...

Hanover
Hanover, Formerly A Kingdom In The N. W. Of Germany, Now A Province Of Prussia; Area 14,870 Square Miles; Pop. About 3,000,000. It Is Of Very Irregular Shape, And Is Divided By Inter Vening Territories Into Three Distinct Por Tions, Besides Some Small Territories To The S., And A Range ...

Harrisburg
Harrisburg, A City, Capital Of The State Of Pennsylvania, And County-seat Of Dauphin Co.; On The Susquehanna River, The Pennsylvania Canal, And On The Pennsylvania, The Philadelphia And Reading, The Cumberland Valley, And The Northern Central Railroads; 160 Miles W. Of Philadelphia. It Is A Railroad Center With Direct Connections ...

Hartford
Hartford, A City, Capital Of The State Of Connecticut, Port Of Entry And County-seat Of Hartford Co.; On The Con Necticut River And On The New York, New Haven And Hartford, And The New Eng Land And New York Railroads; 36 Miles N. E. Of New Haven. It Is An ...

Harvard University
Harvard University, The Oldest Institution Of Learning In The United States, Founded In Cambridge, Mass., 3 Miles From Boston, In 1636. At A Meet Ing Of The General Court Of The Colony Of Massachusetts Bay Convened On Sept. 8, Only Six Years After Its First Settlement, It Was Voted To ...

Hasdrubal
Hasdrubal (hazfdrii-bal), The Name Of Several Carthaginian Generals, Of Whom The Most Famous Was The Son-in Law Of Hamilcar Barca. In 237 B. C. He Accompanied Hamilcar Into Spain, And Gave That General Most Effective Aid In The Work Of Building Up A Carthaginian Dominion In The Peninsula. On The ...

Havana
Havana, A City And Capital Of The Island Of Cuba, On Havana Bay, On The N. Coast. It Is One Of The Most Impor Tant Commercial Points In The Western Hemisphere, And Its Harbor Is One Of The Finest In The World, Well Sheltered, And Entered Through A Deep And ...

Hawaii
Hawaii, A Territory Of The United States Of America, Consisting Of A Group Of Islands In The Middle Of The Pacific Ocean; 2,000 Miles From San Francisco; Area, 6,449 Square Miles; Capital Hono Lulu. Topography.—the Surface Of The Is Lands Is Exceedingly Mountainous And Of Volcanic Origin, With Numerous Active ...

Head
Head, In Anatomy, The Skull, Or Crani Um. Part Of The Head Consists Of An Os Seous Ovoidal Capsule For The Protection Of The Brain. The Face Proper Consists Of The Upper And Lower Jaws. The Skull In Old Age Becomes Composite Like The Sacrum In The Adult. The Margins, ...

Health Insurance
Health Insurance, A Form Of Insurance Which Insures Its Beneficiaries Against Need In Time Of Illness And Com Pensates For The Loss Of Employment During Periods Of Illness. It Is One Of Those Departments Of The General Field Of Insurance Which Was Taken Up Reluc Tantly By Private Enterprise, On ...

Heart
Heart, In Human Anatomy, The Cen Tral Organ Of Circulation, Inclosed In A Membrane, The Pericardium, And Lying Between The Two Layers Of Pleura, The Mediastinum, With The Base Directed Up Ward And Backward To The Right Shoul Der, And The Apex Downward And Fol. Ward Between The Fifth And ...

Heat
Heat, In Natural Philosophy, The Term Used Chiefly To Mean, Not The Sen Sation Which Our Bodies Feel When We Say That They Are Hot, But The Particular State Or Condition Of Matter Which Causes This Sensation. The Accepted Hypothesis Is That Heat Is Caused By An Oscillatory Or Vibratory ...

Heating
Heating And Ventilation. In Cold Climates, Artificial Heating And Ven Tilation Are Both Necessary For Health And Comfort And Are Equally Important. Because The Discomfort Produced By Low Temperature Is More Acutely And Im Mediately Felt Than That Due To Foul Air, Improper Ventilation Is More Common Than Deficient Heating. ...

Hedjaz Or Hejaz
Hedjaz Or Hejaz, A Kingdom Of Arabia, Situated On The N. E. Coast Of The Red Sea, Extending From The Gulf Of Akabah To About The Parallel Of 20* N. And To The Nafud Desert On The E. The Area Is About 96,500 Miles, And Con Sists Largely Of Sand ...

Henry Ii
Henry Ii., First Of The Plantagenet Line, Born In Normandy In 1133, Son Of Geoffrey, Count Of Anjou, And Matilda, Daughter Of Henry I. He Was Invested With The Duchy Of Normandy, By The Consent Of His Mother, In 1150; In 1151 He Succeeded To Anjou And Maine, And By ...

Henry Ii_2
Henry Ii., Son Of Francis I. And His Queen, Claude, Born 1518. His Marriage With Catharine De Medicis Was Celebrated At Marseilles, In 1533, By Her Uncle, Pope Clement Vii. Henry Succeeded His Father In 1547, And At Once Made A Com Plete Change In The Court And Ministry. The ...

Henry Iii
Henry Iii., Eldest Son Of King John And Isabella Of Angouleme; Born In Win Chester, In 1207. He Succeeded His Father In 1216. The Regency Was Intrusted To William Marshal, Earl Of Pembroke, Who, In 1217, Defeated The French Army At Lincoln, And Compelled The Dauphin Louis To Retire To ...

Henry Iv
Henry Iv. (quatre), Called The Great, King Of France And Navarre; Born In 1553 In Pau, In Beam. His Father, An Thony Of Bourbon, Was Descended From A Son Of Louis Ix.; His Mother Was Jeanne D'albret, Daughter Of Henry, King Of Navarre. He Was Brought Up In The Simple ...

Henry Viii
Henry Viii., Born In 1491; Succeeded His Father, Henry Vii., At The Age Of 19. The First Years Of His Reign Were Auspi Cious Owing To His Generosity; But At Length His Conduct Grew Capricious And Arbitrary. The Emperor Maximilian And Pope Julius Ii., Having Leagued Against France, Persuaded Henry ...

Hildebrand Gregory Vii
Gregory Vii., Hildebrand, Son Of A Carpenter; Born In Soano, Tuscany, About 1020. He Was The Friend And Counsellor Of Leo Ix. And The Four Succeeding Popes, And On The Death Of Alexander Ii. Was Elected To Succeed Him In 1073. He Ob Tained Confirmation In His Election From The ...

Industrial Exhibition S
Exhibition S, Industrial. Modern Industrial Exhibitions Differ From The Festivals And Fairs Of Ancient Times, Of Which They Are A Development, Chiefly In The Fact That They Do Not Aim At Immediate And Retail Sales, But Rather For The Purpose Of Showing The Progress Of Industry And Of General Advertise ...

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von (ge'te) A Famous German Poet, Dramatist, And Prose Writer, The Regener Ator Of German Literature ; Born In Frankfort-on-the-main, Germany, Aug. 28, 1749. His Father Was A Counsellor Of State, And Young Goethe Was Reared Amid All The Eleme4s Conducive To A Taste For, And Cultivation ...

John Charles Fremont
Fremont, John Charles, An American Explorer, Popularly Known As "the Pathfinder Of The Rocky Moun Tains"; Born In Savannah, Ga., Jan. 31, 1813, Of A Mixed French And Virginian Parentage. Though Left An Orphan In His Fifth Year, He Received A Good Educa Tion, Having, At The Age Of 15, ...

Madame Goldschmidt
Goldschmidt, Madame (gold' Shmit), Maiden Name Jenny Lind, A Famous Swedish Vocalist; Born In Stock Holm, Sweden, Oct. 6, 1820. At 3 Years Of Age She Could Sing Correctly Any Piece She Had Once Heard, And At 9 She Was Placed Under Croelius, A Famous Teacher Of Music. Count Piicke, ...

Maxim Gorky
Gorky, Maxim, The Pseudonym Of A Russian Novelist And Short Story Writer, Whose Real Name Is Alexei Maximovitch Pyeshkov, Born In Nizhni-novgorod, 1868. He Was Of Humble Parentage, And, Being An Orphan At Nine, Became A Shoemaker's Apprentice. He Did Not Remain Long At This Trade, Nor At Any Trade, ...

Michael Faraday
Faraday, Michael, An English Scientist; Born In Newington Butts, Eng Land, Sept. 22, 1791. He Received Little Or No Education And Was Apprenticed To The Trade Of A Bookbinder. During His Term Of Apprenticeship, A Few Scientific Works Fell Into His Hands, And He Devoted Himself To The Study Of, ...

Military Execution
Execution, Military, A Techni Cal Term, Signifying The Carrying Out Of The Decision Of Any Military Court, Not Necessarily A Death Sentence. Military Laws And Their Execution, Or Administra Tion, Are Quite Separate And Distinct From The Civil Laws Of The Same Territory, The Former Having As Their Special Object ...

Millard Fillmore
Fillmore, Millard, An Ameri Can Statesman, 13th President Of The United States; Born In Summer Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y., Feb. 7, 1800. Appren Ticed To A Wool-carder, He Made Amends By His Zeal In The Pursuit Of Knowledge. His Talents And Aptitude Procured Him The Notice Of Judge Wood, ...

Murat Halstead
Halstead, Murat, An American Journalist; Born In Ross, Butler Co., O., Sept. 2, 1829. He Spent His Minority On A Farm. At 18 He Began Writing For News Papers. In 1851 He Finished His Schooling At Farmers' College, Near Cincinnati, And Then Decided To Study Law. He Did Local Newspaper ...

Nathanael Greene
Greene, Nathanael, An Ameri Can Military Officer; Born In Warwick Co., R. I., May 27, 1742. His School Educa Tion Was Of The Simplest And Most Limited Character; But By Industry He Acquired A Knowledge Of The Principal Branches Of English Education, And Made Some Progress In Law. On The ...

Nathaniel Hawthorne
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, An American Writer, Born In Salem, Mass., July 4, 1804, From A Long New Eng Land Ancestry. When He Was Four Years Old, His Father, A Sea-captain, Died In A Distant Land, And From That Time His Mother Lived In Complete Seclu Sion. Thus Home Influences As Well ...

Oliver Goldsmith
Goldsmith, Oliver, A Famous English Author; Born In Pallas, Long Ford Co., Ireland, Nov. 10, 1728. In 1745 He Entered Trinity College, Dublin, Where He Gave No Indications Of Genius Or Scholastic Talents, And Becoming In Volved In Some Youthful Irregularities, Quitted The University, And Led For Some Time A ...

Ralph Waldo Emerson
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, An American Essayist, Poet, And Philosopher, Born In Boston, May 25, 1803. Seven Generations Of His Ancestors Had Been Clergymen; He Inherited A Tradition Of Scholarship And Heroic Living, And Was Himself Trained To Continue The Tradition. He Knew Few Pleasures In Boyhood; He Was Quiet And ...

Republic Of Finland
Finland, Republic Of, (called By The Natives, Soumen-maa, "land Of Marshes"), A Country Of Northern Eu Rope, Having N. Russian Lapland; E. The Provinces Of Archangel And Olonetz; S. Lake Ladoga, The Province Of St. Peters Burg, And The Gulf Of Finland; And W. Sweden And The Gulf Of Bothnia; ...

Robert Fulton
Fulton, Robert, An American In Ventor, Celebrated As Being The Introdu Cer Of Steam Navigation; Born Of Irish Decent, In Little Britain, Lancaster Co., Pa., In 1765. Early In Life He Mani Fested A Taste For Painting, And Repaired To England To Study Under Benjamin West. In That Country, However, ...

Rutherford Birch Ard Hayes
Hayes, Rutherford Birch Ard, An American Statesman; 19th President Of The United States; Born In Delaware, 0., Oct. 4, 1822. His Father Died Before His Birth, Leaving The Family In Comparative Poverty. He Was Able, However, To Be Educated, First At The Com Mon Schools, Then In Latin And Greek ...

Samuel Gompers
Gompers, Samuel, An American Labor Leader, Born In London, Eng Land, Jan. 27, 1850. He Was Apprenticed To A Cigar Maker As A Young Boy And Came To The United States In 1863. In Spite Of His Youth He Became In The Fol Lowing Year, 1864, The First Registered Member ...

Sir James Robert George
Graham, Sir James Robert George, An English Statesman; Born In Netherby, Cumberland, England, June 1, 1792. He Was Educated At West Minster And Queen's College, Cambridge. As Private Secretary To The British Min Ister In Sicily In 1813, He Had A Hand In The Negotiations With Murat At Naples. After ...

Sir John Franklin
Franklin, Sir John, An Eng Lish Navigator, Born In Spilsby, Lincoln Shire, April 16, 1786; When Only A Boy He Went To Sea, And Later Entered The Eng Lish Navy. In 1806 He Was Present At The Battle Of Trafalgar, And In 1814 At That Of New Orleans, And In ...

Sir Thomas Gresham
Gresham, Sir Thomas, An Eng Lish Financier; Born In 1519; Only Son Of Sir Richard Gresham. Apprenticed To His Uncle, Sir John Gresham, A Wealthy London Mercer, And Then Sent To Study At Gonville Hall, Cambridge, In 1543 He Was Admitted A Member Of The Mercers' Company, And In 1551 ...

Sir William Hamilton
Hamilton, Sir William, A Dis Tinguished Scotch Metaphysician; Born In Glasgow, Scotland, March 8, 1788. His Father And Grandfather Held In Suc Cession The Chairs Of Anatomy And Botany In Glasgow University. Having Studied With Distinction At Glasgow, In 1809, He Entered Baliol College, Oxford, Where He Gained First-class Honors. ...

Society Of Friends
Friends, Society Of. The Organi Zation Commonly Called Quakers, Founded In The Middle Of The 17th Century By George Fox. They Are Distinguished From Other Christian Bodies By The Special Stress They Lay On The Immediate Teach Ing And Guidance Of The Holy Spirit, And Their Belief That No One ...

System
System, The Basis Of Modern Industry. The Change From The Old Handicrafts System Of Manufacturing, In Which Prac Tically All The Needs Of Life Were Manu Factured By Individual Men In Their Own Homes, To The Present Factory System, Where Commodities Are Manufactured In Great Quantities By A Large Number ...

Thomas Fairfax
Fairfax, Thomas, Lord, A Brit Ish Military Officer ; Born In Denton, Eng Land, Jan. 17, 1611. He Was The Eldest Son Of Ferdinand, Lord Fairfax. On The First Breaking Out Of The Civil Discon Tents, Following The Example Of His Father, Fairfax Embraced The Popular Side, And Ranged Himself ...

Ulysses Simpson Grant
Grant, Ulysses Simpson, An American Statesman; 18th President Of The United States; Born In Point Pleas Ant, O., April 27, 1822, Entered West Point Academy In 1839, Graduated In 1843, Received A Commission In The United States Army In 1845, And Served Un Der Generals Taylor And Scott In Mexico. ...

United Kingdom Of Great
Great Britain And Ireland, United Kingdom Of, A Kingdom Of Western Europe, Consisting Of The Is Lands Of Great Britain, Including Eng Land, Scotland, And Wales, Ireland, The Isle Of Man, Shetland And Hebrides, Orkney, Scilly And Other Groups Of Small Islands; Area, 120,979 Square Miles; Capital, London; Pop. (1911) ...

United States Geological Survey
Geological Survey, United States, A Bureau Of The Interior De Partment Created For The Purpose Of Preparing A Map Of The United States, Classifying The Public Land, Examining The Geological Structure, Mineral Resources, And The Products Of The Country. To These Duties Have Since Been Added Those Of Investigating The ...

University Of Glasgow
Glasgow, University Of, A Uni Versity Of Scotland. It Was Founded In 1450 By Bishop Turnbull, And Is, Both In Resnect To Its Age And For The Number Of Its Students, The Second University Of Scotland. Throughout The Many Years Of Its Existence It Has Gradually Acquired Much Property From ...

Warren Gamaliel Harding
Harding, Warren Gamaliel, An American Statesman, Elected Presi Dent Of The United States, On Nov. 2, 1920. He Was Born In The Village Of Blooming Grove, 0., On Nov. 2, 1865, On A Farm Belonging To His Grandfather, Charles Harding, Who Was One Of The Pioneers In The Settlement Of ...

Warren Hastings
Hastings, Warren, First Gover Ernor-general Of India; Born In Dayles Ford, Worcestershire, In 1732. He Was Educated At Westminster School, And In 1750 He Set Out For Bengal In The Capac Ity Of A Writer In The Service Of The East India Company. When Stationed At Cos Simbazar He Was ...

William Crawford Gorgas
Gorgas, William Crawford, An American Physician; Born At Mobile, Ala., Oct. 3, 1854. He Graduated From The University Of The South, In 1875, Re Ceived The Degree Of M. D. From The Belle Vue Hospital Medical College In 1879, And Served As Interne At Bellevue Hospi Tal 1878-1880. Appointed A ...

William Henry Harrison
Harrison, William Henry, An American Statesman, 9th President Of The United States; Born In Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. He Served In The Indian War On General Wayne's Staff, 1791 1792, And In 1797 Was Appointed Captain, In Command Of Fort Washington, On The Present Site Of Cincinnati, O. On ...

Or 2ethiopia Ethiopia
Ethiopia, Or 2ethiopia, In Ancient Geography Is The Country Lying To The South Of Egyptnd Comprehending The K Modern Nubia, Kordofan, Abyssinia, And Other Adjacent Districts; But Its Limits Were Not Clearly Defined. It Was Vaguely Spoken Of In Greek And Roman Accounts As The Land Of The Ichthyophagi Or ...

Or Disc Talking Machine
Gramophone, Or "disc Talking Machine," A Mechanism For Reproduc Ing Sound, Differing In Construction, But Not In Principle, From The Phonograph. It Was Invented In 1888 By Emile Ber Liner, A German-american Inventor, Who Was Chief Instrument Inspector Of The Bell Telephone Co., And Also Inventor Of The Telephone Transmitter. ...

Or Erse Gaelic
Gaelic, Or Erse, Language And Literature. The Language Spoken By The Highlanders Of Scotland Is Termed By Them The Gaelic; But The Name Frequently Given To It By The Lowlanders Is Erse, Or Ersh, Evidently A Corruption Of Irish. It Is A Dialect Of That Great Branch Of The Celtic ...

Or Faizabad Fyzabad
Fyzabad, Or Faizabad, A City In The United Provinces Of India, The Capi Tal Of The Division Of The Same Name. Within Its Limits Are Many Temples And A Vast Number Of Ruins Of The Ancient City Of Ayodhya. The Great Fair Annually Held Here Is Attended By Over Half ...

Or Feline Felid2e
Felid2e, Or Feline, The Cat Tribe, A Family Of Carnivorous Quadrupeds, In Cluding The Domestic Cat, Lions, Tigers, Panthers, Leopards, And Lynxes. In These Animals Tilt, Destructive Organs Reach The Highest Perfection. The Head Is Short And Almost Rounded ;n Its Form. The Principal Instruments Of Their Destruc Tive Energy ...

Or Fibre Fiber
Fiber, Or Fibre, A Filament, Or Thread, The Minute Part Of Either Animal Or Vegetable Substances. The Scientific Use Of Fiber Is Described With Regard To The Animal Kingdom Under Muscle And Tissue; And With Regard To The Vegetable Kingdom, Under Vegetable Tissue, Wood, And Woody Fiber. In Its More ...

Or Fusarol Fusarole
Fusarole, Or Fusarol, In Archi Tecture, A Molding Or Ornament Placed Immediately Under The Echinus In The Doric, Ionic, And Composite Capitals; The Shaft Of A Column, Pilaster, Or Pillar, Or That Part Comprehended Between The Shaft And The Capital. Fuse (a Shortened Form Of Fusee), A Tube Or Casing ...

Or Germany
Germany, Or The German Re Public, Formerly The German Empire. Prior To The Revolution Of 1918 Germany Was A Constitutional Monarchy, Consist Ing Of 25 Federated States And An Im Perial Territory (reichsland). During The Latter Part Of 1918 It Was Under A Provisional Republican Government, And In 1919 Was ...

Or Gha17ts Ghats
Ghats, Or Gha17ts (eats), East Ern And Western, Two Converging Ranges Of Mountains, Which Run Parallel With The E. And W. Coasts Of Southern India, And Meet At Cape Comorin, Inclos Ing The Deccan. The Ghats Commence In The Vicinity Of Balasor, A Little N. Of The Mahanadi, And Run ...

Or Glendwr Glendower
Glendower, Or Glendwr, Owen (glen'diir), A Welsh Chief ; Born In Montgomeryshire About 1359. He Was Made Esquire Of The Body To Richard Ii., And Remained With Him Till His Deposi Tion By Henry Iv. In 1399, After Which He Retired Into Private Life. Shortly After The Accession Of The ...

Or Glycerine Glycerin
Glycerin, Or Glycerine, A Triatomic Alcohol Of The Fatty Series, Or Ch2 (oh•) •ch (oh) •ch2 (oh). Glycerin Was Discovered In 1778 By Scheele, Who Obtained It In The Prep Aration Of Lead Plaster By Saponifying Lard With Oxides Of Lead. Glycerin Occurs In Most Natural Animal And Vegetable Fats ...

Or Golyzin Galitzin Gallitzin
Galitzin Gallitzin. Galyzin, Or Golyzin One Of The Most Powerful And Distin Guished Russian Families, Whose Mem Bers Have Been Equally Prominent In War And Diplomacy From The 16th Century Downward. Vasili, Surnamed The Great, Born In 1643, Was The Councillor And Favorite Of Sophia, The Sister -of Peter The ...

Or Jenghis Khan Genghis
Genghis Khan, Or Jenghis Khan (jen'gis Khan), A Mongol Con Queror; Born Near The Onon River, Mon Golia, In 1162. His Father Was Chief Over 30 Or 40 Clans, But Paid Tribute To The Tartar Khan. He Succeeded His Father When Only 14 Years Of Age, And Made Himself Master ...

Or Kharbin Harbin
Harbin, Or Kharbin, A City Of Manchuria, China, In The Province Of Kirin, Situated On The Sungari River, 615 N. E. Of Port Arthur And 350 Miles N. W. Of Vladivostok. The City Is Not The Result Of Natural Development, But Was The Built-up Headquarters Of The Military And Railroad ...

Or Pisciculture Fish Culture
Fish Culture, Or Pisciculture, The Artificial Propagation Of Fish To Off Set The Destructive Effect Of Fisheries. The Art Of Fish Fertilization Is Compara Tively New. In 1763 Stephen L. Jacobi Of Westphalia, Germany, Devised The Process Now In Use Of Stripping The Ova From The Female Fish And Mixing ...

Or St Francis Of
Francesco Di Paula, Or St. Francis Of Paola, An Italian Monk, Founder Of The Order Of The Minims; Born In Paula Or Paola, A Village Of Calabria, In 1416. At The Age Of 13 He Was The In Mate Of A Franciscan Convent; And At 19 He Retired To A ...

The Fathers
Fathers, The, A Name Applied To The Early Writers Of The Christian Church —those Writers Who Have Given Us Ac Counts Of The Traditions, Practices, Etc., That Prevailed In The Early Church. The Term Is Mostly Confined To Those Who Lived During The First Six Centuries Of The Christian Era, ...

The Greco Turkish War
Greco-turkish War, The, A War Which Took Place Between Greece And Turkey In 1897. On Feb. 3, 1897, The Turkish Troops In Crete Wantonly Pillaged And Massacred A Large Number Of Christians. About 15,000 Greek Women And Children Fled To Greece, Where The People Had To Provide For Them. In ...

The Hague
Hague, The (hag), The Capital Of The Netherlands, 2 Miles From The North Sea And 15 N. N. W. Of Rotterdam. It Is One Of The Handsomest Cities In The Coun Try, Being Intersected By Canals And Shady Avenues Of Lime-trees, And Having Many Fine Public Buildings And Private Houses. ...