JOFFRE, MARSHAL JOSEPH JACQUES CESAIRE, a French marshal. He was born ot Rivesaltes, Pyrenees, in 1852, and was educated at the College of Perpignan, and the Ecole Polytechnic. In 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War he entered the army as 2nd lieu tenant, becoming lieutenant in 1872, cap tain in 1876, and major in 1889. In intervals he returned to the military col lege to study engineering and strateg-y, and in 1874 assisted in organizing the defenses of Pontarlier. He also took part in the French colonial wars and commanded part of the forces under Courbet in Tongking, and in 1891 helped to establish French authority among the revolting Dahomans. In 1894 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and in 1897 colonel, having been active in Africa as well as Madagascar. He was made brigadier in 1901 and general of division in 1905. In 1911 he was made chief of the general staff, and was at the head of the French army when the World War broke out in 1914. When the Ger
man drive into France took place in August and September of 1914, he kept the French forces in reserve and fell back toward Paris and the Marne, avoiding a decisive battle until the French army could be concentrated upon an advan tageous line. By these tactics he was enabled early in September to attack the Germans in the valley of the Marne, and so checked the German invasion. He continued as commander in chief of the French armies till 1917, in which year he gave place to Marshall Foch. He is a disting-uished mathematician, besides being known as a strict disciplinarian. He wrote one book, "Pily March to Tim buctoo." The military medal together with numerous other honors were con ferred on him by the President of the French Republic for his great services in the war.