KREMLIN, THE, an architectural pile in Moscow, on the N. bank of the river Moskva. It forms the center of the city of Moscow, and around it, with a radius of about a mile, is a line of boule vards, extending, however, only on the N. side of the river. Outside of this line, and concentric with it, is another line of boulevards, with a radius of a mile and a half; while beyond all, and forming the girdle of the city, is the outer rampart, with a circumference of 26 English miles. The Kremlin com prises the principal buildings, as the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Vir gin, founded in 1326, a small but gorge ously decorated edifice; the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael, containing the tombs of all the czars down to the time of Peter the Great, who changed the royal burial place to Petrograd, the Church of the Annunciation, the floor of which is paved with jaspers, agates, and carnelians of various shapes; the tower of Ivan Veliki, 200 feet in height, he visited America, where he was well received. Following the entrance of the
United States in the war, unwarranted and surmounted by a magnificent gilded dome from which, as from all the domes of Moscow, rises the "honorable cross"; the Czar Kolokol (king of bells), the greatest bell in the world, several pal aces and collections of ancient arms and other antiquities; the arsenal, sur rounded by the splendid trophy of 850 cannons, taken from the French, and the senate. The walls of the Kremlin are surmounted by 18 towers, and pierced with five gates. The Kremlin suffered during the revolution of 1917, and was pillaged at various times during revolutionary uprisings that followed. When the central Bolshevik Government was moved from Petrog-rad to Moscow, it became its headquarters.