MACADAM, JOHN LOUDON, a Scotch engineer, inventor of the system of road-making known as "macadamiz ing"; born in Ayr, Scotland, Sept. 21, 1756. He began in 1810 to make experi ments in the construction of roads, which became a passion with him. In 1815 he was appointed surveyor to the Bristol Turnpike Trust, and remade the roads there cheaply and well. Impoverished through his labor he petitioned Parlia ment, and he was voted $50,000 and ap pointed Surveyor-general of Metropoli tan Roads in 1827. He declined knight hood. He published "A Practical Essay on the Scientific Repair and Preserva tion of Public Roads" (1819) ; and "Observations on Roads" (1822). He died in Moffat, Dumfriesshire, Nov. 26, 1836.
McADOO, WILLIAM GIBES, born at Marietta, Ga., Oct. 31, 1863. For a num ber of years he practiced law in New York and then in 1902 became president of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company. His company constructed in 1904 the first tunnel under the Hudson river, a remarkable achievement in en gineering and due in great measure to McAdoo's energy and skill. His man agement of the company's finances caused him to be recognized as one of the great financiers of the United States. He was prominent in the Democratic National Convention in 1912 and later in the campaign which elected Woodrow Wilson President. On March 4, 1913, the President appointed McAdoo Secre tary of the Treasury, a post which he held until his resignation in 1919. Mc
Adoo's task of managing the nation's finances during the struggle with Ger many was performed with the same un tiring energy which had characterized his private enterprises. The floating of the "Liberty Loans" and the huge sums raised by taxation were accomplished with but little opposition from the peo ple, and the success of his financial measures made him a leading candidate for the Democratic nomination for the Presidency.
McALESTER, a city in Oklahoma at the junction of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas with the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroads. As there are extensive coal mines in the region, the city's chief industry is coke making and iron manu facture. Pop. (1910) 12,954; (1920) 12,095.
MacALESTER COLLEGE, a coeduca tional institution in St. Paul, Minn.; founded in 1885 under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church; reported at the close of 1919: Professors and in structors, 23; students, 485. President, E. A. Bess.
McALL MISSION, the largest Prot estant mission in France; founded in 1871 by the Rev. Robert Whitaker McAll (1822-1893) and his wife. It possesses more than 40 stations (about 15 in Paris), and is supported by Protestant Christians of all denominations in Great Britain and the British colonies, and the United States.