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Collier's New Encyclopedia, Volume 6

Battles Of The Marne
Marne, Battles Of The. The First Battle Of The Marne Fought In Sep Tember, 1914, Marked A Turning Point In The European War. On Sept. 6 French And British Halted Their Retreat From Mons And Charleroi And Made A Stand Against The German Armies. General Von Kluck, Unable To Invest ...

Benson John Lossing
Lossing, Benson John, An Amer Ican Historian; Born In Beekman, Dutchess Co., N. Y., Feb. 12, 1813. He Published "pictorial Field-books" Of The Revolution, The War Of 1812, And The Civil War, The First In 1850-1852 (2 Vols.), The Second In 1868, The Third 1866-1869 (3 Vols.). He Was A ...

Caius Marius
Marius, Caius (m5:ri-us), A Roman Soldier; Born Near Arpinum, Italy, About 155 B. C. Having Entered The Army, He Became Known To Scipio Africanus, And Acquired So Much Repute That He Was Elected Tribune 119 Or 120 B. C., Prmtor 116, And Governor Of Spain, 115. In 109 He Joined ...

Catherine De Medici
Catherine De Medici; Born In Flor Ence In 1519. She Married The Duke Of Orleans, Who Became Henry Ii. Of France, And Her Children Were Francis Ii., Charles Ix., Henry Iii., And Marguerite Of Va Lois. Catherine De Medici Was Queen Regent Of France From 1560 To 1563. She Died ...

Church Of The New
New Jerusalem, Church Of The, A Religious Sect Founded In London, England, In 1783, On The Teachings Of Emmanuel Swedenborg (q. V.). The Doctrines Of This Church Include A Belief In The Trinity, God Being The Infinite Di Vine Essence, Christ The Human Manifes Tation Of God, And The Holy ...

Daniel Maclise
Maclise, Daniel, A British Paint Er; Born In Cork, Ireland, Feb. 2, 1806. He Was The Son Of A Highland Soldier Named Mcleish. He Entered The School Of The Royal Academy, London, In 1828, Soon Exhibited At The Academy, And In 1833 Made Himself Famous By His "all Hallow Eve." ...

Erich Von Ludendorff
Ludendorff, Erich Von, Ger Man Military Leader, Born In Prussian Poland, 1865; Graduated From The Im Perial Military Academy, In 1895, And Was Soon After Attached To The General Staff, In Berlin. He Rapidly Won Pro Motion Through His Zeal For Military Efficiency. In 1912 He Was At The Head ...

Foundation Nobel Prizes
Nobel Prizes, Foundation,and Institutes. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, The Swedish Inventor, Provided Before His Death That Five Prizes Be Every Year Distributed To Individuals, Who During Each Respective Year Had Made The Great Est Contribution To Progress And Learn Ing In The Fields Of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology Or Medicine, Literature, And ...

France
France. Louis I., King Of France. See Louis I., Emperor Of Germany. Louis Ii., Called The Stammerer, Kist Of France; Born In 846. He Was Tl Son Of Charles The Bald, Was Crowii, King Of Aquitaine In 867, And Succeed< D His Father As King Of France In 877 Died ...

Fridtjof Nansen
Nansen, Fridtjof, A Norwegian Scientist And Explorer; Born In Great (froen, Near Christiania, Norway, Oct. 10, 1861. At The Age Of 19 He Entered Christiania University, Giving His At Tention There Chiefly To Biological In Vestigations, In The Pursuit Of Which, In 1882, He Made A Voyage In A Sealer ...

Helmuth Karl Bern Hard
Moltke, Helmuth Karl Bern Hard, Count Von (molt'ke), A Prussian Military Officer, One Of The Greatest Soldiers Of Europe; Born In Parehim; Mecklenburg-schwerin, Oct. 26, 1800. He Was The Son Of A German Army Officer. At The Age Of 11 He Was Sent To The Military School At Copenhagen, And, ...

Henry Wads Worth Longfellow
Longfellow, Henry Wads Worth, An American Poet; Born In Portland, Me., Feb. 27, 1807; Was Grad Uated In 1825 At Bowdoin College. In 1826 He Accepted The Professorship Of Modern Languages At Bowdoin, Spending, However, The Next Three Years In Europe. In 1835 Appeared "outre-mer," A Volume Of Prose Sketches, ...

Horatio Nelson
Nelson, Horatio, Viscount, An English Naval Officer; Born In Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England, Sept. 29, 1758. At The Age Of 12 He Entered The Navy As A Midshipman, And In 1773 Accompanied Commodore Phipps In An Expedition To Ward The North Pole. In 1777 He Was Made A Lieutenant, And ...

Ichiro Motono
Motono, Ichiro, Baron, Japa Nese Statesman; Born In The Ken Of Saga In 1862, He Was Sent As A Student To This Size Is Exceeded, The Craft Becomes A Motor Yacht, Barge, Or Tug, Or Whatever Else Its Type May Determine. About 1885, Before The Successful Adaptation Of The Internal ...

Ignatius Loyola
Loyola, Ignatius (la-yo'la), Orig Inal Name Inigo Lopez De Recalde, A Spanish Soldier And Prelate, The Founder Of The Order Of The Jesuits; Born In The Castle Of Loyola, Guipuscoa, Spain, In 1491. He Was Descended Of A Noble Biscayan Family. He Was Attached In His Youth As A Page ...

Iviichel Ney
Ney, Iviichel, Duke Of Elchin Gen And Prince Of The Moskva, Peer And Marshal Of France; Born In Saarlouis, France, Jan. 10, 1769. His Early Years Were Devoted To The Study Of The Law, But Disliking The Confine Ment, He Entered The Army As A Pri Vate Hussar In 1787. ...

James Madison
Madison, James, An American Statesman, 4th President Of The United States; Born In Port Conway, Va., March 16, 1751. He Was The Eldest Of A Family Of Seven Children. His Early Education Was Mostly Under Private Tutors. In 1769 He Entered Princeton College, Grad Uating In 1771. He Studied Law, ...

James Monroe
Monroe, James, An American Statesman And 5th Presiddnt Of The United States; Born In Westmoreland Co., Va., April 28, 1758. Completing His Ed Ucation At William And Mary College, He Joined The Continental Army In 1776. Took Part In The Battle Of Trenton, Brandywine, Germantown, And Mon Mouth, Rising To ...

Joachim Murat
Murat, Joachim (mii-riv), A French Military Officer; Born In Bastide, Lot, France, March 25, 1771. He Was The Son Of An Innkeeper At Cahors, And Was Intended For The Church, But Escap Ing From The College Of Toulouse, He Enlisted As A Chasseur, But Was Shortly After Dismissed For Insubordination. ...

John Alexan Der Mcclernand
Mcclernand, John Alexan Der, An American Soldier And Lawyer; Born In Breckenridge Co., Ky., May 30, 1812; Admitted To The Bar In 1832; In Same Year Volunteered Against The Sac And Fox Indians; Was Member Of The Illinois Legislature In 1837-1842; And Of Congress, 1843-1851; Re-elected In 1858. At The ...

John Church Ill Marlborough
Marlborough, John Church Ill, Duke Of, An English Soldier And Statesman; Born In Ashe, Devonshire, England, June 24. 1650. He Was The Son Of Sir Winston Churchill, A Devoted Ad Herent Of Charles I. After Receiving A Defective Education He Was Placed, At The Age Of 12, As Page In ...

John Loudon Macadam
Macadam, John Loudon, A Scotch Engineer, Inventor Of The System Of Road-making Known As "macadamiz Ing"; Born In Ayr, Scotland, Sept. 21, 1756. He Began In 1810 To Make Experi Ments In The Construction Of Roads, Which Became A Passion With Him. In 1815 He Was Appointed Surveyor To The ...

John Milton
Milton, John, An English Poet, Born On Dec. 9, 1608, In London. His Father, A Distinguished Musician, Made A Comfortable Living From His Profession Of Scrivener, And Was Wise Enough To Recognize The Genius Of His Son And To Give Him A Most Careful Education. Milton Was Sent To St. ...

John Pierpont Morgan
Morgan, John Pierpont, An American Capitalist; Born In Hartford, Conn., April 17, 1837; Was Educated At The University Of Gottingen, Germany. In 1871 Was Made A Partner Of The Firm Of Drexel, Morgan & Co., Afterward J. Pierpont Morgan & Co., And Was Or Ganizer Of Large Railroad And Industrial ...

London
London, The Metropolis Of The Brit-i Ish Empire, And The Most Populous, Wealthy, And Commercial City Of The World. It Is Situated Partly And Princi Pally On The N. Bank Of The Thames, In The County Of Middlesex, And Partly On Its S. Bank In The County Of Surrey, Its ...

Lord Chancellor
Lord Chancellor (england), The Highest Judicial Officer Of The Crown, Law Adviser To The Government, And Keeper Of The Great Seal. He Ranks Next To The Royal Family And The Archbishop Of Can Terbury. Privy Councillor And Member Of The Cabinet, And A Presiding Officer Of The House Of Lords. ...

Los Angeles
Los Angeles, A City Of California, The County-seat Of Los Angeles Co. It Is 475 Miles S. E. Of San Francisco. It Is Situated On The Los Angeles River, And The Southern Pacific, Atchison, Topeka And Santa Fe, The San Pedro, Los Angeles And Salt Lake, And The Southern Pacific ...

Louisiana
Louisiana, A State In The South Central Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By Arkansas, Missis Sippi, The Gulf Of Mexico, And Texas; Admitted To The Union, April 30, 1812; Number Of Parishes, 60; Capital, Baton Rouge; Total Area, 48,720 Square Miles; Pop. (1890) 1,118,587; (1900) 1,386,625; (1910) 1,656,388; ...

Louisville
Louisville, A City And County-seat Of Jefferson Co., Ky.; On The Ohio River, And On The Louisville And Nashville; The Louisville, Henderson And St. Louis; The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago And St. Louis; The Chicago, Indianapolis And Louisville; The Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago And St. Louis; The Illinois Cen Tral; The Chesapeake ...

Louvre
Louvre, The Name Of A Celebrated Public Building Of Paris, Situated In The N. Part Of The City, Near The Right Bank Of The Seine. It Was Originally A Hunt Ing Lodge, And Later A Castle, Begun About 1204. Charles V. (1364-1380) Added Some Embellishments To It, And Brought Thither ...

Lubricant
Lubricant, A Substance Inserted Between Moving Contact Parts Of A Machine For The Purpose Of Reducing Friction And Preventing Abrasion. The Substances Used As Lubricants Vary Great Ly With The Use To Which They Are Put— Solids Such As Soapstone Or Graphite, Used To Lubricate Surfaces Subjected To High Pressure ...

Luke
Luke, A New Testament Evangelist. In Col. Iv: 14, He Is Called "luke The Be Loved Physician." In Philemon He Is Called Lucas, And Described As One Of St. Paul's Fellow-laborers, And When "paul Was Ready To Be Offered" (ii Tim. Iv: 6), He Adds, "only Luke Is With Me." ...

Lumber Industry
Lumber Industry, The Produc Tion Of And Trade In Sawn Timber For Building Purposes. The Chief Countries Engaged In This Industry Are The United States, Canada, Russia, Hungary, Ger Many, Sweden, And France, To Which May Be Added Brazil, British Guiana, Mexico, And Other Tropical Countries As The Producers Of ...

Lung
Lung, An Organ Of Respiration. Human, Anatomy.—the Organs Of Res Piration Are On Each Side Of The Chest, Conical, And Separated From Each Other By The Heart In Front And A Membranous Partition, The Mediastinum. Externally They Are Convex, To Correspond With The Chest Walls, And Internally Concave To Receive ...

Lusitania
Lusitania, A British Steamship Of The Cunard Line, 32,000 Tons, Built On The Clyde In 1908. From 1908 To 1915 She Was In The Transatlantic Service Be Tween New York And Liverpool, In Which Service She Made The Record Time Of Five Days. When The World War Broke Out In ...

Lutherans
Lutherans, A Designation Originally Applied By Their Adversaries To The Re Formers Of The 16th Century, And After Ward Distinctively Appropriated Among Protestants Themselves To Those Who Took Part With Martin Luther Against The Swiss Reformers, Particularly In The Controversies Regarding The Lord's Sup Per. It Is So Employed To ...

Luxemburg
Luxemburg, Formerly A Duchy, Bounded On The N. By The Belgian Prov Ince Of Liege, On The W. By That Of Na Mur, On The E. By Rhenish Prussia And On The S. By France; Area, 2,700 Square Miles. A Chain Of Hills, Branching From The Ardennes, Traverses The Country ...

Lyons
Lyons (le-ong'), A City Of France, Capital Of The Department Rhone, And The Second Of The Republic In Population And Commercial Importance, Situated Chiefly On A Peninsula Between The Rivers Rhone And Saone, And On The Paris And Mar Seilles And Other Railroads, 275 Miles E. N. E. Of Bordeaux, ...

M Claudius Marcellus
Marcellus, M. Claudius, A Ro Man General And Member Of One Of The Most Eminent Plebeian Families. In His First Consulship (222 B. C.) He Defeated The Insubrian Gauls And Slew With His Own Hand Their King, Britomartus Or Viridomarus. In The Second Punic War Marcellus Took Command After The ...

Macaroon
Macaroon (-ron), A Kind Of Small Sweetcake Or Sweet Biscuit Made Of Flour, Almonds, Eggs, And Sugar. Macarthur, Arthur, An Amer Ican Military Officer; Born In Massachu Setts, June 1, 1845; Enlisted In The Volun Teer Service Of The United States In Wisconsin, And Was Appointed 1st Lieu Tenant Of ...

Maccabees
Maccabees, A Name Applied To A Patriotic Family Whose Achievements Were Most Notable. Antiochus Epiphanes, A Syrian King, Having Been Expelled From Egypt By The Romans, Relieved His Vex Ation By Attempting To Put Down The Jewish Worship. Palestine Then Being Under His Sway, The Aged Mathathias, Priest Of Modin, ...

Macclesfield
Macclesfield, A Town In Cheshire, England, Near Manchester. Important Textile And Silk Mills, And The Coal Mines In The Vicinity Make It An Important Manufacturing City. The City Owns The Water And Gas Works, As Well As Many Quarries And Markets. A Free Library And Technical Schools Are Supported By ...

Macedonia
Macedonia, In Ancient Geography, A Territory Lying To The N. Of Greece, Which First Became Powerful Under Its King Philip, The Father Of Alexander The Great, And Conqueror Of Greece. Alex Ander The Great Added Immensely To The Empire Of Macedonia, And Made What Had Only Been A Petty Province ...

Macerata
Macerata (ma-ch5.-rna), A Walled Town Of Central Italy, Picturesquely Perched On An Eminence (1,207 Feet), 44 Miles S. Of Ancona; Has A Cathedral, A Beautiful Town Hall Of The 13th Century, And Manufactures Of Glass And Pottery; The University (1290) Had In 1917 About 340 Students. Pop. About 25,000. Macgahan, ...

Machine Gun
Machine Gun, A Weapon Designed To Discharge In Rapid Succession Numbers Of Small Shells. There Are Two Distinct Types Of Machine Guns—those Which Operate By Hand, Or Other Externally Applied Power, And Those Which Utilize The Force Of The Recoil Or Explosion. Under The Direction Of The Emperor Napoleon Iii., ...

Mackerel
Mackerel, Scomber Scomber (linn.), S. Scombrus (cuv.), The Common Euro Pean Mackerel. Snout Pointing, Under Jaw Projecting, Gill Covers Large And Smooth, Pectoral And Ventral Fins In Ad Vance Of The Dorsal; Five Finlets Above And Below The Tail, Vertically Over Each Other; Tail Crescent Shaped. Above The Lateral Line ...

Macmillanites
Macmillanites, The Followers Of The Rev. John Macmillan, Of Balmaghie, In Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland, Who, In The Latter Part Of The 17th Century, Aided In Laying The Foundation Of The Reformed Presbyterian Or Cameronian Church. Macmillen, Francis, American Violinist; Born In 1885 At Marietta, 0., He Studied At Chicago And Then ...

Madagascar
Madagascar, A Large Island In The Indian Ocean, 230 Miles From The E. Coast Of Africa, From Which It Is Sepa Rated By Mozambique Channel; Length, 980 Miles; Average Breadth, 360 Miles; Area, About 228,500 Square Miles; Pop. (1917) 3,545,264. Madagascar May Be Described As An Elevated Region, With An ...

Madras
Madras (ma-dras'), A Province Of British India, Occupying With Its Depen Dencies And Mysore, The Entire S. Of The Peninsula Of India, Surrounded On Every Side Except The N. By The Sea, Bounded On The N. By Bengal And The Central Prov Inces, The Territory Of Hyderabad And Mysore; Area, ...

Madrid
Madrid (ma-threth'), The Capital Of Spain And Of The Province Of Madrid, A Part Of New Castile, Situated Near The Heart Of The Country, On The Left Bank Of The Manzanares, A Sub-affluent Of The Tagus, And On A Hilly, Sandy Plateau, 2,200 Feet Above The Sea, Treeless Save In ...

Magazines
Magazines, Periodical Publications, Usually Monthly, And Generally Limited To Fiction And Articles Of Current Inter Est, Largely Illustrated, The Word Meaning A "store Room" Of Interesting Literature. This Form Of Publication Had Its Origin As Far Back As 1663, When The French His Torian, Mezeray, Attempted To Establish A Weekly ...

Magnetism
Magnetism, The Science Which Treats Of The Phenomena Exhibited By Magnets—phenomena Due To One Of Those Forces Which, Like Electricity And Heat, Are Known Only By Their Effects. The Phenomena Of Magnetism Were First Ob Served In The Loadstone Or Magnet (so Named From Magnesia In Asia Minor). The Loadstone ...

Mahomet Anism Mohammedanism
Mohammedanism, Mahomet Anism, Or Muhammadanism, The Religion Founded By Mohammed (q. During The Caliphates Of His Immediate Successors Abu-bekr (632-634) And Omar (634-646), The Arabs, Or Saracens, Con Quered Syria. Persia, And Egypt, And Established The New Faith. Othman Re• Signed Next (644-655). Then The Arabs Elected Ali, Mohammed's Son-in-law. ...

Maine
Maine, A State Of The North Atlan Tic Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By Quebec, New Bruns Wick, The Atlantic Ocean, Bay Of Fundy, And New Hampshire; Admitted To The Union, March 15, 1820; Counties, 16; Area, 29,395 Square Miles; Pop. (1890) 661,086; (1900) 694,466; (1910) 742, 371; ...

Mainz
Mainz (mints) (french, Mayence), A Fortified Town Of Germany, In The Re Public Of Hesse, Finely Situated On The Left Bank Of The Rhine, Opposite The Mouth Of The Main, 20 Miles W. S. W. Of Frankfort. The Rhine Is Here Crossed By A Bridge Connecting Mainz With The Small ...

Malays
Malays, A People Inhabiting The Malay Peninsula And The Eastern Or Malay Archipelago, Or Collectively Malay Sia. They Are Of Mongolian Affinity, And May Be Looked On As An Oceanic Branch Of That Division Of Mankind, Being Modi Fied Physically By Mingling With The Papuan Element In The E. And ...

Malta
Malta (marta) (anciently Melita), An Island In The Mediterranean Belong Ing To Great Britain; 62 Miles S. S. W. Of Sicily, And 197 Miles N. Of Africa; Length 17 Miles; Central Breadth, About 9 Miles; Area, 95 Square Miles, To Which The Adjoining Islands Of Gozo And Comino Add 24; ...

Mammoth
Mammoth, A Gigantic Prehistoric Mammal. The First Mammoth Discovered Was Found Imbedded In Ice In 1799 On The Shores Of The Lena, By A Tungoosian Fisherman Named Schumachoff. W. Boyd Dawkins, Treating Of The Range Of The Mammoth In Time And Space. Comes To The Conclusion That It Existed In ...

Mammoth Cave
Mammoth Cave, A Cavern Near Green River, Edmonson Co., Ky., About 85 Miles S. S. W. Of Louisville. The Cave Is About 10 Miles Long, But It Requires Up Ward Of 150 Miles Of Traveling To Explore Its Multitudinous Avenues, Chambers, Grottoes, Rivers, And Cataracts. The Main Cave Is 4 ...

Manchester
Manchester, A City In Lancaster Co., England; On The Irwell, An Affluent Of The Mersey, 31 Miles E. Of Liverpool. In Cluding Salford, A Suburban Town On The W. Bank Of The Irwell, It Stands In A Large Plain, Covering Over 3,000 Acres, Surrounded With Hills Except On The W., ...

Manchuria
Manchuria (-tshwri-s) (chinese Shing-king), A Chinese Territory Occupy Ing The N. E. Corner Of The Empire; Bounded On The N. And E. By The Amur And Usuri, Which Separate It From The Russian Territory; On The W. By The Provinces Of Irkutsk, Mongolia, And Chih Li, On The S. By ...

Manganese
Manganese, A Metallic Element Which Forms A Distinct Chemical Species. It Is Found In Many Parts Of The World And In The United States, Chiefly In Vir Ginia And Georgia, In The Southern Mis Sissippi Valley And On The Pacific Coast. Iron Ores Containing It Also Occur In New England ...

Manila
Manila, The Chief Town Of The Phi Lippine Islands And Capital Of Luzon; On The E. Side Of A Wide Bay On The S. W. Coast Of Luzon, 650 Miles S. E. Of Hong Kong, With Which City It Has Been Con Nected By Telegraph Since 1881. It Is Di ...

Manitoba
Manitoba, A Province Of The Domin Ion Of Canada; Bounded On The N. W. And N. By The Northwest Territories, On The E. By The Province Of Ontario, And On The S. By The United States; Area, 251,832 Square Miles, With An Approximate Land Area Of 147,152,880 Acres, Of Which ...

Mansfeld
Mansfeld (manslelt), Counts Of, An Old German Noble Family (founded About 1060), Whose Ancestral Castle Stood At The E. End Of The Harz Moun Tains, 14 Miles N. W. Of Halle. Count Peter Ernest I., Afterward Elevated To The Rank Of A Prince, Was Born July 15, 1517. Having Taken ...

Mantua
Mantua (man'til-a), A Town Of Northern Italy, Capital Of A Province Of Same Name, On The Mincio, 21 Miles S. W. Of Verona, And 37 N. E. Of Cremona. It Is Partly On Two Islands Formed By The Waters Of The Mincio, And Partly On The Mainland. Mantua Is Both ...

Manual Training
Manual Training, In Modern Education, The Training Of The Hand And Eye In The Use Of Typical Tools, Suitable Materials, And Mechanical Methods, As Well As In Practical Drafting, Including The Best Methods Of Both Freehand And Accurate Instrumental Drawing Of Objects Already Constructed And Of Objects To Be Constructed. ...

Manuscripts
Manuscripts, Literally, Writings Of Any Kind, Whether On Paper Or Any Other Material, In Contradistinction To Printed Matter. All The Existing Ancient Manu Scripts Are Written On Parchment Or On Paper. The Paper Is Sometimes Egyptian (prepared From The Real Papyrus Shrub), Sometimes Cotton Or Silk Paper (charta Bombycina). Black ...

Maori
Maori, A Polynesian Race Found In New Zealand When The Island Was First Celestial. Terrestrial Maps Are Of Two Kinds, Those Which Represent Portions Of Land And Water Together, Which Are Prop Erly Called "maps," And Those Which Represent Portions Of The Ocean, Only Indicating The Directions Of Currents, Soundings, ...

Marathas Mahrattas
Mahrattas, Marathas, Or Mar Hatas (ma-rat'az), A People Of Mixed Origin, Hindus In Religion And Caste Or Dinances, Inhabiting Western And Cen Tral India, From The Satpura Mountains To Nagpur. The Mahratta Brahmans Claim To Be Rajputs; The Bulk Of The Peo Ple Are Sudras, And Probably Of Aborigi Nal ...

Marble
Marble, A Popular Name For Any Limestone Which Is Sufficiently Hard To Take A Fine Polish. Any Calcareous Or Even Any Other Rock Which Takes A Good Polish And Is Suitable For Decorative Or Architectural Purposes. Arranged By Col Or As Da Costa Does, There Are: (1) Marbles Of One ...

Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa, Queen Of Hun Gary And Bohemia, Archduchess Of Aus Tria, And Empress Of Germany, Daughter Of The Emperor Charles Vi.; Born In Vienna, May 13, 1717. In 1736 She Mar Ried Duke Francis Stephen Of Lorraine, Who, In 1737, Became Grand-duke Of Tuscany. The Day After Her Father's ...

Marie Edme Pa Trice
Macmahon, Marie Edme Pa Trice Maurice De (mak-ma-iing), Duke Of Magenta, A Marshal Of France, Descended From An Irish Jacobite Family; Born In Sully, Near Autun, France, July 13, 1808. After Distin Guished Services He Won A Marshal's Baton And The Dignity Of Duke Of Ma Genta For The Decisive ...

Marine Engineering
Marine Engineering. Marine Engineering Is That Branch Of The Science Of Engineering Which Has To Do With All Ship Machinery. Originally A Marine En Gineer Was The One Who Designed And In Stalled The Propulsive Machinery Of The Ship, In Contrast To The Naval Architect Who Designed The Ship Itself, ...

Marines
Marines, Troops Enlisted For Service Either On Board Ship Or On Shore. They Are Drilled, Disciplined, Clothed, Equipped, And Paid Similarly To The Land Forces. Their Duties Are To Maintain The Neces Sary Guards, Man Some Of The Guns, Form Part Of The Armed Crews Of The Various Boats When ...

Mark
Mark, The Evangelist Whose Name Is Prefixed To The Second Gospel. He Was Almost Certainly The Same As The "john Whose Surname Was Mark," Mentioned In Acts Xii: 12, 25. The Name John Was Jewish; Mark (marcus) Was Roman. John Mark's Mother Lived At Jerusalem, Her House Being A Resort ...

Marriage
Marriage, The Legal Union Of Man And Woman For Life; The State Or Condi Tion Of Being Married; Wedlock. In Law Marriage Is Regarded In No Other Light Than A Civil Contract. The Law Allows It To Be Valid Where The Parties Were Willing To Contract, Able To Contract, And ...

Mars
Mars, One Of The Superior Planets Situated Between The Earth On The One Side And The Vast Cluster Of Asteroids On The Other. Its Mean Distance From The Sun Is 141,500,000 Miles, And At Times It Is Only 36,000,000 Miles From The Earth. It Revolves Around The Sun A Few ...

Marseilles
Marseilles (mar-salz'), French Marseille (mar-say'), A City, Prin Cipal Commercial Seaport Of France, On The Mediterranean, And Capital Of The De Partment Of Bouches-du-rhone; On The Gulf Of Lyons. It Lies In The Form Of An Amphitheater Round A Natural Harbor Of Moderate Size Now Known As The Old Har ...

Martin I
Martin I., Succeeded Theodore In 649, But Was Deposed By The Emperor, And Banished, After Suffering Great Indigni Ties, To The Sarmatian Chersonese, Where He Died In 655, Being Afterward Numbered, For His Suffering, Among The Saints. Martin Ii. Succeeded John In 882, But Died Within 18 Months Of His ...

Martin Luther
Luther, Martin, The !,eader Of The German Reformation; Born In Eis Leben, Lower Saxony, Nov. 10, 1483. His Father, Hans Luther, Was A Poor Miner, And Soon After His Son Martin's Birth Settled With His Pious And Industrious Wife, Margaret, At Mansfeld. At The Age Of 14 He Was Sent ...

Maryland
Maryland, A State In The South Atlantic Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By Pennsylvania, Dela Ware, Virginia, West Virginia, And The Atlantic Ocean; One Of The Original 13 States; Counties, 24; Area, 9,860 Square Miles; Pop. (1890) 1,042,390; (1900) 1, 188,044; (1910) 1,295,346; (1920) 1,449, 661. Capital, Annapolis. ...

Massachusetts
Massachusetts, A State In The North Atlantic Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, And The Atlantic Ocean; One Of The Original 13 States; Number Of Counties, 14; Area, 8,040 Square Miles; Pop. (1890) 2,238,943; (1900) 2,805,346; (1910) 3,366,416; (1920) 3,852,356; ...

Matthew
Matthew, An Apostle Of Jesus, Al Most Certainly The Same As Levi, The Son Of Alpheus. (see Matt. Ix: 9-13, Mark Ii : 14-16, And Luke V: 27.) He Was A "publican"—i. E., A Taxgatherer—who Sat At The Receipt Of Custom At Capernaum On The Shore Of The Sea Of ...

Mauritius
Mauritius (ma-rishrius), Or Isle Of France, An Island In The Indian Ocean, A Colony Of Great Britain, 500 Miles E. Of Madagascar; Of An Oval Form, About 40 Miles Long From N. E. To S. W., And 25 Miles Broad, And Surrounded By Coral Reefs; Area, 713 Square Miles; Pop. ...

Maximilian
Maximilian Prince And Formerly Heir Presumptive Of Baden, A German Statesman, Born July 10, 1867. He Was President Of The Upper Chamber Of Baden In 1917 And In An Address Made At That Time He Indicated That His Views On The War Were Moderate. This Led To The Belief That ...

Mecca
Mecca, A City Of Arabia, In Ghe Prov Ince Of El-hedjaz, 51 Miles E. Of Djedda, On The Red Sea, And 270 Miles S. E. Of Medina. Mecca, Meaning Literally "the Place Of Assembly," Is Situated In A Long, Narrow, Sandy Valley, Running N. And S., Called In The Koran ...

Mecklenburg Strelitz
Mecklenburg-strelitz (strwlits) , For. Mer Grand-duchy Of, A State Of North. Ern Germany, Consisting Of Two Sepa Rate Territorial Divisions: The First And Largest, The Former Duchy Of Star Gard, Bounded On The W. By Mecklen Burg-schwerin, And Surrounded On All Other Sides By The Prussian Territories; The Second, The ...

Media
Media (me'dia), In Ancient Geog Raphy, A Country Of Asia, Which Ex Tended On The W. And S. Of The Caspian Sea, From Armenia And Assyria On The N. And W., To Farsistan Or Persia Proper On The S.; And Included The Districts Now Called Shirvan, Azerbeijan, Ghilan, Ma Zanderan, ...

Medical Education
Medical Education. In Ancient Times Almost All Medical Teaching Was Given By Masters To Their Pupils Without The Use Of Formal Schools. But The Names Of Hippocrates And Galen, Who Were In Classical Days In Great Repute, Show That The Teachers Of Medicine Were Held In Honor. Almost All The ...