MEDICINE, a remedy, a remedial agent, an antidote to disease; any sub stance prescribed for the alleviation or removal of disease. Medicines are ad ministered, as a rule, by the mouth, but sometimes also by the rectum, by inhala tion into the lungs, by hypodermic in jection into the cellular tissue, or in some rare cases by injection into the veins. The Egyptians are credited with some proficiency in the art; their embalming of bodies must have taught them the ele ments of anatomy. The medical and sanitary arrangements of the Mosaic law are well known. Chiron, the fabled Cen taur, is said to brought some knowl edge of medicine from Egypt to Greece. His pupil was JEsculapius, said to have lived previously to the Trojan war [about 1500 B. C. )]. He was so eminent a physician that he was, on his death, dei fied, and became the Greek god of medi cine, under whose auspices all further researches were made. Pythagoras, about 529 a. C., studied the human frame; but the "father" of Greek medicine was Hippocrates, 460-357 B. C. He is by some considered the founder of the dogmatic school. About 332 B. C. the Alexandrian school arose, under Eratosthenes and Hierophilus. The latter was opposed by Chrysippus, and the empiric school arose. The Romans were long in entering the field. The greatest Roman physician was Galen, A. D. 165. The Methodics had arisen shortly before, and the Eclectics were ramifications of the former. From
the 7th to the 12th century the Arabs cultivated medicine; their greatest name was Avicenna, about A. D. 1020. The Ital ians next assumed the lead. The dog matic school of medicine was assailed by Paracelsus (1493-1541) and Vesalius (1514-1564). The discovery by Harvey, in 1628, of the circulation of the blood, gave a great impulse to medical science.
Modern medicine owes its greatest debt to Virchow, Pasteur, and Lister. They first determined that tissues were composed of various cells and that types of diseased structure of tissues could be identified by the predominating cell form in each. Pasteur founded the science of bacteriology, and Lister, who died in 1912, was the apostle of antiseptics, revo lutionizing surgery. By insisting that wounds should be kept clean, and the operator and instruments, as well, the use of carbolic to purify the air, and antiseptic dressings, surgeons carried out successfully operations never at tempted before. Transfusion of blood, which saved many lives, marked another triumph against disease. Tuberculosis is yielding to medical science. The dis covery of X or Roentgen Rays for pho tographing invisible organs has been a great aid in disease. The bacterial origin of typhus, transmitted by body lice and insects, was made known in 1915. In the World War only 4 per cent. died of disease.