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MICHIGAN, a State in the North Central Division of the North American Union; bounded by Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Ontario; counties, 83; area, 57,430 square miles; pop. (1890) 2,093,889; (1900) 2,420,982; (1910) 2, 810,173; (1920) 3,668,412; capital, Lan sing.

Topography.—The State is divided by the Great Lakes into two peninsulas, the lower of which occupies nearly two-thirds, of the land area. The surface of the S. peninsula is generally level, broken by conical hills rising to an altitude not exceeding 200 feet. It is divided by a low watershed running N. and S., the larger portion of the State being on the W. of this and gradually sloping toward Lake Michigan. The N. peninsula is moun tainous; the Porcupine range, rising to an altitude of 2,000 feet above the sea, forming the watershed between the streams flowing into Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. The surface on either side of this range is rugged. There are numerous lakes and marshes in both pe ninsulas, and' he coast is much indented. Keweenaw, White Fish, and the Big and Little Noquette bays are the principal in dentations on the N., while the Grand and Little Traverse, Thunder and Saginaw bays indent the S. peninsula. The State has numerous large islands, the principal ones being the Manitou, Beaver and Fox groups in Lake Michigan; Isle Royale, and Grande Isle, in Lake Superior; Mar quette, Bois Blanc, and Mackinaw in Lake Huron; and Nebish, Sugar, and Drummond Islands in St. Mary's Strait. The rivers are small, short and shallow, and but few are navigable. The principal ones include the Au Sable, Thunder Bay, Cheboygan, and Saginaw, flowing into Lake Huron; Ontonagon, and Tequame non into Lake Superior, and the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Grand, and Escana ba into Lake Michigan.

Geology.—The geological formation of the State is greatly varied. Primary boulders are found over the entire sur face, the N. part being principally of primitive origin, while Secondary deposits cover the entire S. peninsula. The upper peninsula exhibits Lower Silurian sand stones, limestones, copper and iron bear ing rocks, corresponding to the Huronian system of Canada. The central portion

of the S. peninsula contains coal meas ures and rocks of the permo-Carbonif erous period. Devonian and sub-Carbon iferous deposits are scattered over the entire State.

Soil.—The soil is of a varied compo sition and in large areas is very fertile, Bspecially in the S., but the N. peninsula for the most part is rocky and moun tainous and the soil unadapted to agri culture. The climate is tempered by the proximity of the lakes and is much milder than in other localities with the same latitude. The principal forest trees in clude basswood, maple, elm, sassafras, butternut, walnut, poplar, hickory, oak, willow, pine, birch, beech, hemlock, witch hazel, tamarack, cedar, locust, dogwood, and ash.

Mineral Production.—Michigan is one of the great mineral producing States. It excels chiefly in the production of copper and iron. In the production of copper it ranks third, being exceeded only by Arizona and Montana. The smelter out put of copper in the State in 1918 was 231,096,158 pounds. The production of copper began in the State before the first visits of European explorers. The commercial production dates from 1845, since which time copper has been steadily produced in increasing quantities. The production of copper is limited to the Keweenaw or Lake Superior district. The iron ores of the State are hematites. The production is in four regions, the Mar quette, Menominee, Gogebic, and Vermil ion. The shipments of iron ore in 1918 amounted to 17,587,416 tons and was valued at $65,900,501. This was a slight decrease from the production of 1917. In the production of iron ore, Michigan is exceeded only by Minnesota. Coal is also produced in large quantities. The pro duction in 1918 was 1,385,000 tons. Coal is obtained almost entirely from the lower peninsula. Michigan is among the first of the States in the production of cement. There was produced in 1918 3,618,088 tons, valued at $6,078,167. Other impor tant mineral products are salt, clay pro ducts, and stone products.

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