MINNESOTA, a State in the North Central Division of the United States; hounded by Manitoba, Ontario, Lake Superior, Wisconsin, Iowa, North Da kota, and South Dakota; admitted to the Union May 11, 1858; counties, 86; area, 79,205 square miles; pop. (1890) 1,301, 826; (1900) 1,751,394; (1910) 2,075,708; (1920) 2,387,125; capital, St. Paul.
Topography.—The surface of Minne sota is undulating, with no mountains hut having a broad low elevation in the N., 280 miles in length. This elevation constitutes the watershed for three great basins, the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and the Hudson bay. This elevation is about 1,000 feet above the S. of the State toward which it descends in a gradual slope. There are several elevated plains W. of the Mississippi, of which the Coteau des Prairies. and the Coteau de Grand Bois, are the most extensive. The principal river system is the Mississippi which has its source in this State. The principal affluents of this river are the Minnesota, the Root, Zumbrota, Cannon, Crow Wing, Willow, St. Croix, and Ruin. The Red river of the North forms over half the W. boundary line of the State and is fed by the Buffalo, Wild Rice, and Red Lake. Many small streams flow in to Lake Superior, and several discharge into Rainy Lake river, and the chain of lakes running along the N. boundary. The State has numerous large lakes, in cluding Red Lake, Leech. Mille Lacs, Vermilion, Big Stone, Traverse, Otter Tail, Itasca, and Winnebegoshish. The Mississippi river has numerous beautiful waterfalls, the largest being the Falls of St. Anthony, and the cascade of Minne haha.
Geology.—The rocks of the N. and S. E. portions of the State are of Lower Silurian origin, and the river valleys are underlaid by magnesium limestone. The lake shore is principally of metamorphic origin, with schists, alternating with sandstone, basalt, and occasional drift deposits.
Soil.—The soil is of alluvial deposit of great richness, and especially adaptable to wheat-growing. It is a rich loam from two to five feet in depth. The top covering of the land known as "black dirt" is due to the residuum of prairie fires and accumulations of decayed vege tation. The climate is less rigorous than
usual in such latitudes. The winters are long, and the temperature even, with but little snow. Annual rainfall from 20 to 30 inches. The principal forest trees are the oak, beech, elm and maple; spruce, pine, and other coniferous trees; ash, birch, linden, basswood, butternut, wild plum, and crab apple.
Mineralogy.—The N. E. portion of the State is known as the mineral region and is rich in mineral resources.
Minerel Production.—Minnesota's high rank as a mineral producing State comes entirely from its iron production. In this it ranks first. There was shipped from the mines of the State in 1918, 43,263,240 tons of iron ore, valued at $144,706,532. The larger part of the production comes from the Mesabi Range, which is the most important iron-pro ducing district in the world. Production was begun in this field in 1892 and has steadily increased. The output from the Vermilion Range has decreased in recent years. The only other important ibin eral products are clay and stone.
Agriculture.—Minnesota is one of the great agricultural States. The produc tion of the principal crops in 1919 was as follows: corn, 118,000,000 bushels, valued at $141,600,000; oats, 90,160,000 bushels, valued at $57,702,000; barley, 18,200,000 bushels, valued at $21,112,000; wheat, 37,710,000 bushels, valued at $94,276,000; rye, 7,830,000 bushels, val ued at $10,179,000; hay, 3,800,000 tons, valued at $55,100,000; potatoes, 26,100, 000 bushels, valued at $39,933,000.
Banking.—On Oct. 1, 1919, there were reported 309 National banks in opera tion, with $33,606,000 in capital, $14,122, 000 in outstanding circulation, and $81, 249,000 in United States bonds. There were also 1,120 State banks with $24, 753,000 capital and $9,342,000 surplus; 19 trust and loan companies, with $5, 551,000 capital and $1,440,000 surplus. The exchanges for the year ending Sept. 30, 1919, at the United States clearing houses at Minneapolis and St. Paul amounted to $3,181,855,000.