MISSOURI, a State in the South Central Division of the United States, bounded by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kan sas, and Nebraska; admitted to the Union, Aug. 10, 1821; counties, 115; area, 68,735 square miles; pop. (1900) 3, 108,665; (1910) 3,293,336; (1920) 3,404, 055; capital, Jefferson City.
the surface of the State presents no considerable eleva tions, it is greatly diversified. In the S. W. part are the Ozark Mountains, a series of isolated knobs, peaks, and cliffs of sandstone, some reaching an altitude of 1,500 feet. The Mississippi river, forming the E. boundary line, is bor dered by highlands in the shape of lime stone bluffs, in some cases reaching a height of 350 feet. W. of these high lands the State is high and broken, be coming more and more level till the Osage river is reached. The principal rivers are the Mississippi, having a course of 470 miles along the E. boundary, the Missouri, which forms 200 miles of the W. boundary, and turning E. crosses the State, and flows 250 miles to the Mississippi. The Osage, St. Fran cis, Black, White, Gasconade, Current, Grand, and Charlton are all navigable for small boats at high water. Among unnavigable streams of importance are the Platte, Sac, Piney, Castor, Salt, South Grand, Nodaway, Fabrus, Mera mec, Cuivre, and Niaugua rivers.
geological formations of Missouri are prindipally of Carboniferous origin, especially in the N. and W. De vonian rocks occur in the N. E. and S. W., extending in a S. direction toward St. Louis. The S. of the State is princi pally of Silurian formation, and the rocks include shale, limestone, conglom erate, and sandstone. Granite, green stone, porphyry, and other Eozoic and Archean rocks occur in the S. and S. W.
Mineral chief mineral products of the State are zinc and lead, in the production of which it ranks first among the States. The total value of the lead and zinc concentrates produced in 1918 was $37,763,394; the production of lead concentrates was 287,983 short tons, valued at $21,988,567. The quanti ty of zinc blende concentrate sold from the Missouri mines was 95,555 tons, val ued at $4,899,347. The chief production is from the central and southeastern part of the State. Copper is also pro
duced in the State. The production in 1918 was 577,665 pounds, valued at $142, 683. The silver production was 46,939 fine ounces, valued at $46,939. The State produces a considerable amount of coal. The production in 1918 was 5,605,000 tons. There were employed in the coal mines of the State about 8,000 persons. Gold is found in small quantities. Other important mineral products are sulphuret of nickel, manganese, wolfram, gypsum, asbestos, bitumen, fire clay, kaolin, hy draulic lime, saltpeter, and mica.
soil is generally fertile, ex cepting on the hills, where it is mixed with such a proportion of iron oxides as to make it unproductive. The alluvial deposits of the Mississippi and Missouri are exceedingly fertile, and the swamps, when drained, yield enormous crops. The prairies produce tobacco and wheat of the best quality. Only about one-third of the State is cultivated, the remainder being to a large extent densely timbered. The principal forest trees are the elm, ash, oak, sugar maple, hackberry, dog wood, sassafras, sweet gum, black gum, calapa, tupelo, pawpaw, and pecan. Yel low pine grows abundantly around the head waters of the Black, White, and Current rivers, and extensive pine for ests extend also along the Arkansas border.
ranks among the first of the States in its importance in agricultural products. The produc tion and value of the principal crops in 1919 was as follows: Corn, 155,412,000 bushels, valued at $214,459,000; oats, 38, 259,000 bushels, valued at $27,164,000; wheat, 57,868,000 bushels, valued at $120,982,000; hay, 3,794,000 tons, valued at $73,983,000; potatoes, 8,250,000 bush els, valued at $15,180,000; cotton, 60, 000 bales, valued at $10,200,000. Other important crops are pear, clover, flax, hemp, garden fruits, and barley. Agri cultural and creamery products, such as butter, cheese, barley, sorghum, bees wax, wine, and maple syrup, and mo lasses, are all developed to a high standard. Much of the territory N. of the Missouri river is covered with blue grass and is finely adapted to stock raising.