MONTREAL, the metropolitan city of Canada; on an island of the same name, in the Province of Quebec, at the head of ocean navigation on the St. Lawrence river; 160 miles N. of Quebec. The city, originally called Ville Marie, derives its present name from Mount Royal, which rises abruptly to a height (at the Ob servatory) of 735 feet above low water in the river which runs at its base, and upon the lower slopes and terraces of which a large section of the city is built. The St. Lawrence in front of Montreal averages about 2 miles in width and is crossed at the narrowest point by the Victoria Jubilee Bridge Ws miles in length and 60 feet high in the middle. The river is also crossed by the Lachine bridge of the Canadian Pacific Railway near the city. A fine natural harbor for ocean-going ships has been greatly im proved by extensive dredging and gigan tic works and improving the wharfage accommodations. The ship channel be tween Montreal and Quebec has been dredged to a depth of 27 feet at an ex pense of about $5,500,000. Montreal is the terminus of ocean navigation by the Lachine Rapids about 7 miles above the city, which are navigable downward only by small steamers. These rapids are overcome for inland navigation by the Lachine canal miles in length, with a rise of 45 feet, the first of the extensive system of St. Lawrence canals.
Municipal Improvenients.—The topog raphy of Montreal has facilitated the construction of a fine system of water works deficient only in the matter of filtration; the main reservoir with a ca pacity of 36,500,000 gallons being situ ated 200 feet above the level of the river and a higher level reservoir 210 feet higher affording a high pressure service available for fire protection to the high est buildings in the city. The supply is obtained from the Ottawa river. The season of navigation extends from May till November.
Noteworthy Buildings.—The twin tow ers of the Roman Catholic Church of Notre Dame, the parish church of Mont real, built 1824-1829, constitute the most characteristic landmark of Montreal. The towers are 227 feet high, and one of them contains the largest bell on the con tinent, the "Gros Bourdon." The church
is one of the largest in North America, and will hold 15,000 people. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. James, com menced in 1868, is modelled after St. Peter's at Rome. There are about 100 churches in Montreal, the oldest being Notre Dame de Bonsecours (1771). Christ Church Cathedral (Anglican) is an exquisite example of English church architecture of the Gothic style. Other fine churches are Notre Dame de Lourdes, the Church of the Gesu, and St. James, Methodist. The oldest structures in Montreal are two old towers in front of the Grand Seminary, built in 1694 for protection against the Indians. Among the more noteworthy modern buildings are the Royal Victoria Hospital; the Bank of Montreal; the general offices of the Grand Trunk Railway; the Windsor Street and Place Viger stations of the Canadian Pacific Railway; the McGill and Laval University buildings.
Monuments. — The best statues are those of Queen Victoria, in Victoria Square; of Maisonneuve, in Place d'Armes Square. Perhaps the most in teresting monument is that of Lord Nel son, near the City Hall, erected in 1809.
Business. — In 1918 the imports were valued at $197,162,520, and exports $524, :J65,342. Montreal is an important bank ing center, the oldest and largest bank being the Bank of Montreal, founded in 1817, and since then developed into one of the most important banking institu tions of the world. In 1919 the bank clearings were over $6,200,000,000. In the same year the assessed valuation was over $850,000,000.
Education.—As a seat of learning Montreal occupies a high place. Chief among its educational institutions are McGill, UNIVERSITY (q. v.); a branch of Laval University, Quebec; the medi cal faculty of Bishop's College Univer sity, Lennoxville; the Seminary of St. Sulpice; St. Mary's College (Jesuit); and the Vile Marie, Sacred Heart, and Hochelaga Convents. The public schools of Montreal are controlled by boards of Roman Catholic and Protestant School Commissioners respectively.