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NAPLES (Italian, Napoli), a city in southern Italy, the largest in the king dom, on the N. shore of the Bay of Naples, about 160 miles from Rome. Its site is magnificent, being on the side of a nearly semi-circular bay, partly along the shore, and partly climbing the ad jacent slopes, bounded on one side by the picturesque heights of Posilipo, and on the other by the lofty mass of Vesuvius, while the background is rich in natural beauty. The environs are densely peopled, towns and villages being nu merous round the bay as well as inland. The city is divided into two unequal parts by a steep bridge proceeding from the height on which stands the castle of St. Elmo, and terminated by a rocky islet I surmounted by the Castello dell' Ovo. The largest and most ancient part of Naples lies to the S. E. of these heights. This now forms the business quarter, and is intersected from N. to S. by the main street, the Toledo, now Via di Roma. The W. and more modern part of the city is the fashionable quarter, has a superior situation, and commands mag nificent views.

There are few remains of ancient times, but there are five castles, S. Dell' Ovo, Nuovo, Del Carmine, Capuano, Elmo, and the Gates Porta del Carmine and Capuano, all of medieval construc tion. Among the more remarkable pub lic edifices is the cathedral, dating from 1282, a large Gothic building erected on the site of the two temples dedicated to Neptune and Apollo. It is held in high veneration in consequence of possessing the relics of St. Januarius or Gennaro. The university (1224) in 1916-1917 had 6,346 students and there are many other educational institutions, and numerous hospitals and charitable foundations. The manufactures, which are numerous, include macaroni, woolens and cottons, silks known as gros de Naples, glass, china, musical instruments, flowers and ornaments, perfumery, soap, chemicals, machinery, ships, locomotives, boilers, etc. The harbor accommodation has recently been extended, and the trade is important. The exports consist chiefly of wine and brandy, fruits, paper, and hemp. Naples is one of the most densely populated cities of Europe and one of the most peculiar features of the city is its unique population and the uni versal publicity in which life is passed. In the environs are situated the tomb of Vergil, the ancient ruined cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, the remains of Roman temples, villas, palaces, and tombs, together with the physical phenomena of Vesuvius. Pop. about


was founded by a Greek colony from the town of Cum many centuries before Christ. It took the name of Neapolis ("New City") to distinguish it from a still older Greek city adjoining called Parthenope. It passed to the Romans in 290 B. C. In A. D.

536 it was taken by Belisarius, and was rillaged by Totila in 542. In 1130 the Norman Robert Guiscard united the S. of Italy, and the adjacent island of Sicily into one political unity, and from that period the history of Naples ceases to be the history of a city, but becomes the history of a kingdom forming part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Naples being recognized as the metrop olis. In the year 1189 the kingdom passed from the Norman to the Swabian race. In 1266 Charles of Anjou de feated the Swabians, and was crowned King of the Two Sicilies. The kingdom was ruled by this dynasty till 1441, when it came under the dominion of the Princes of Aragon. In the early part of the 16th century it came into the possession of Spain, which governed it by viceroys till 1707. Under the rule of the Spanish viceroys broke out the famous insurrection under Masaniello in 1647. It was similarly governed by Aus tria till 1735, when it was erected into an independent monarchy in favor of Don Carlos, or Charles of Bourbon. On the latter's accession to the throne of Spain in 1759 he was succeeded by his son Ferdinand IV. In 1798 the French re publicans entered Naples, which became a republic; but a loyalist rising led to the return of the king. His reign was again interrupted in 1806, when Napoleon suc ceeded in placing first his brother Joseph, and on Joseph's removal to Spain his brother-in-law Murat, on the throne of Naples. In 1815 Ferdinand regained his throne, and changed his title to Ferdi nand I. On his death in 1825 he was succeeded by Francis I., who died in 1830. This prince was followed by his son Ferdinand II., notorious under the nickname of Bomba. He died in 1859, and his son Francis IL was his successor. The latter continued the abuses of the old regime, and in the revolution that broke out in 1860 under the guidance of Gari baldi he was deposed and Naples and Sicily were added to the Kingdom of Italy.