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united, citizen, court and law

NATURALIZATION, in law, the act of placing an alien in the position, or in vesting him with the rights and privi leges of a natural-born subject. The naturalization laws of the United States are wholly the fabric of the Federal Gov ernment, while the privileges attendant, so far as regards suffrage, etc., are left to the discretion and gift of the various State legislatures. For a foreigner to become a citizen of the United States it is necessary for him, first, to declare his bona fide intention to become a citizen, and the declaration must be made at least two years before "final papers" are taken out. It must be made before a United States Circuit or District Court, or (in a Territory) before the Supreme Court or District Court, or (in a State) before a court having a common law jurisdiction and a clerk and seal. At the time of admission to citizenship, the ap plicant must have been, at least five years previously, a resident of the United States, and must produce evidence that he is a fit subject on whom to confer the rights of citizenship, and must, further, renounce allegiance to all foreign princes and governments—particularly to the one to which he was last subject. After admission he is, in all respects, a citizen of the United States and entitled, in every regard, to the same protection that the native-born citizen is. In the case

of children of a foreigner, who, at the time of their father's naturalization, were not of legal age, the act of the father is considered as conferring citi zenship on them, and further process is unnecessary. Chinamen cannot be nat uralized. The children of citizens of the United States, if born abroad, are Amer ican citizens, and entitled to protection as such. In some of the States a for eigner who has declared his intention to become a citizen is permitted to vote, while in others none but full-fledged citi zens are admitted to that privilege. By a law of 1913 all matters relating to nat uralization were in the hands of the Bureau of Naturalization of the Depart ment of Labor. By a law passed by Con gress in 1919 honorably discharged sol diers and sailors who served in the World War are exempted from dec laration of intention, fees, and proof of five years' residence.

In biology, the introduction of plants through human agency into new lands or regions.