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New Hampshire

river, products, valued, mineral, produced, white and lakes

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NEW HAMPSHIRE, a State in the North Atlantic Division of the North American Union; bounded by Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, Quebec, and the Atlantic Ocean; one of the original 13 States; capital, Concord; number of counties, 10; area, 9,005 square miles; pop. (1890) 376,530; (1900) 411,588; (1910) 430,572; (1920) 443,083.

surface of the State is rugged. The Appalachian range of mountains enters the State from Maine, and as the White Mountains crosses the State diagonally with a maximum ele vation in Mount Washington of 6,285 feet. Along the W. part of the State these mountains dwindle down to a range of hills. The White Mountain dis trict is divided by the Saco and Lower Ammonoosuc river valleys, and the "Notch" into the White and Franconia ranges. This region presents magnifi cent scenery and is known as the "Switzerland of America." Besides Mount Washington, there are 28 other peaks over 4,000 feet high. The river system is divided into five drainage basins. The Connecticut river, forming the entire Vermont boundary line, and fed by the Upper and Lower Ammonoo suc, Mascona, Sugar, and Ashuelot rivers, drains the entire W. part of the State. The Androscoggin river, rising in Lake Umbagog, drains the N. E. and the E. mountain district is drained by the Saco. The Piscataqua, with its tributaries, the Salmon Falls, and the Cocheco, forms a S. E. basin. The mouth of this river forms the harbor of Portsmouth, the only harbor on the New Hampshire coast. The Merrimac river, formed by the junction of the Femigewasset and Win nipiseogee, flows through a region of manufacturing cities to which it supplies unlimited water power. There are nu merous beautiful lakes and ponds in the State, the largest being Winnipiseogee. Other lakes are the Umbagog, Squam, Sunapee, Great Bay, New Found, Con necticut, and Diamond lakes.

Geology. — The principal geological formations of New Hampshire are of Eozoic origin, this State being one of the first portions of the American continent to appear above the primal ocean. Terminal moraines and boulders illus trate the Glacial period, and deposits of Laurentian, Labradorian, Huronian, and Atlantic periods are also present. Mag

netic and specular iron ore are found in places, and some copper is mined in the towns of Lyman and Monroe. New Hampshire is not an important State in the production of minerals and metals. The chief mineral product is granite. The annual output is valued at about $1,500,000. Bricks were produced in considerable quantities. Other mineral products are garnet, mica, mineral waters, and scythe stones. The total value of the mineral products is about $2,000,000 annually.

Soil and soil is light and sandy and with the exception of the Connecticut valley and portions of Coos county is not adaptable to farming. The soil is as a rule worn out from constant tillage and makes muah better pastur age than farmland. The agricutural interests have of late been turned to stock raising and dairy farming. Large quantities of maple sugar and syrup are produced. The principal farm products are hay, rye, wheat, oats, potatoes, and buckwheat. The production of the prin cipal crops in 1919 was as follows: corn, 1,050,000 bushels, valued at $1, 785,000; oats, 1,221,000 bushels, valued at $1,038,000; hay, 675,000 tons, valued at $16,200,000; potatoes, 2,400,000 bush els, valued at $4,200,000. The forest trees include several varieties of pine, hemlock, spruce, and maple, oak, beech, birch, elm, hickory, butternut, chestnut, poplar, cherry, ash, and moosewood.

Manufactures.—In common with other New England States, the industrial in terests of New Hampshire are devoted to manufacturing. The abundant water power produced by the Merrimac river makes central and southern New Hamp shire one of the most important manu facturing sections of the country. The statistics of manufactures in 1914 was as follows: number of establishments, 1,736; average number of wage earners, 78,993; capital invested, $156,749,000; wages paid, $40,642,000; value of ma terials used, $114,993,000; value of fin ished products, $182,844,000. The prin cipal products were cotton and woolen goods, boots and shoes, hosiery and knit goods, leather, machine shop and foundry products, paper, flour, clothing, furni ture and wood pulp.

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