PANGBORN, GEORGIA WOOD, an American writer; born in Malone, N. Y., in 1872. Graduated from Packard In stitute in 1894, and in the same year married H. L. Pangborn. She wrote "Roman Biznet" (1902) ; "Interventions" (1911). She was a frequent contributor to magazines.
a movement among German nationalists and im perialists, embodying the idea that all German-speaking peoples should be united into one dominating empire. For long only an ideal, it finally found con crete expression in the formation of the Universal German League in 1891, which in 1894 changed its name to the Pan German League. In the propaganda of the more enthusiastic leaders of this organization was expressed the idea which gradually prepared the German people to support the military plans of the Imperial Government when, in 1914, it precipitated its great war of world conquest. In 1903 the League formu lated its program into the following main points: (1) Intensification of patriotic educa tion, and bitter opposition to all the ideas of "world brotherhood," advocated by the Socialists; (2) To Germanize more thoroughly the public school system, by removing all sources of instruction detrimental to the Pan-German idea; (3) To support all German minorities in other European countries, to keep alive their race consciousness and to give them all possible aid in fighting for polit ical power that eventually all these units might unite and make a German-ruled Europe; (4) To foster German influence and culture in over-seas colonies.
In 1902 the League had enrolled 22,000 members, by which time it was carrying on a tremendous propaganda. During the war it was generally taken for granted that the Pan-German League worked closely hand in hand with the Imperial Government, but it is doubtful whether the connection was any closer than between any ultra-patriotic society and the government of any country dur ing war time. That military conquest was the idea of a majority, or even of any large minority, of the League mem bers, is doubtful. A peaceful penetra tion of the civilized world by German "culture" was the openly expressed de sire of the majority. The Pan-German League still wields some influence, even under the Republic. It is naturally strongly anti-Socialistic.