ORDER, in archology, the different modes of architectural treatment adopted by the ancients in constructing their pub lic edifices and buildings of the higher class. They are usually separated into five, principally distinguished from each other by the proportions of their columns and the kind of capitals employed, but also by the relative proportions and dec orative parts of their entablatures, as well as other minor features. They are known as the Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan and Composite. In ecclesiastical affairs, in the Roman Church, "a Sacra ment of the New Law by which spiritual power is given, and grace conferred for the performance of sacred duties." The Council of Trent (sess. xxiii.) asserted, and anathematized those who denied (1) that there was a real priesthood in the New Law; (2) that, besides the priest hood, there were grades of orders; (3) that Order was a Sacrament instituted by Christ; (4) that the Holy Ghost was given and a character conferred at or dination; (5) that unction was properly used in ordination; (6) that there was a divinely appointed hierarchy in the Roman Church; (7) that bishops were superior in power to priests, and were the ministers of Confirmation and Or der; and (8) that bishops appointed by the Roman Pontiffs were true and legiti mate bishops. The doctrine of Apostoli cal Succession is a necessary deduction from the view that Order is a Sacra ment. Orders in the Roman Church are
divided into two classes: Sacred, or Major, and Minor Orders. In the East the number of orders has varied at dif ferent times, but in the Greek, Coptic, and Nestorian Churches the orders rec ognized are those of bishop, priest, dea con, subdeacon, and reader. Anglicans acknowledge three: bishops, priests, and deacons. The validity of Anglican Or ders is denied by the Roman Church. English clerics entering that church, and wishing to become priests, must be or dained by a Roman bishop. In geom etry, rank or class. In analysis, magni tudes are classed into orders, depending upon the degree of their equations. All algebraic magnitudes whose equations are of the first degree are of the first order; those whose equations are of the second, third, etc., degrees, are rospec tively of the second, third, etc., orders. In natural science, the designation given to the division immediately below a class or sub-class and next above a tribe or a family. In rhetoric, the placing of words and members in a sentence in such a manner as to contribute to force and beauty of expression, or to the clear illustration of the subject.