PAWTUCKET, a city in Providence co., R. I., on the Pawtucket river, at the head of navigation, and on the New York and New England, and the New York, New Haven and Hartford rail roads; 4 miles N. of Providence. The river here falls 50 feet, and this fact, with its proximity to the sea, led Sam uel Slater in 1790 to select it as the site for the first cotton factory built in the United States. Here are water-works, public library, public and parochial schools, street railroad and electric light plants, National and savings banks, and several daily and weekly newspapers. It has about 500 manufacturing estab lishments, among which the most im portant are cotton, woolen, and hair cloth mills, machine shops, and foun dries, print works, and extensive thread mills. Pop. (1910) 51,622; (1920) 64, 248.
PAX, the Roman goddess of peace.
PAX, in Church history, the kiss of peace. In the early Church the Roman osculunt was adopted and raised to a spiritual significance (Rom. xvi: 16; I Cor. xvi: 20; II Cor. xiii: 12; I Thess. v: 26). To obviate possible danger from this custom, the Apostolic Constitutions strictly decreed the separation of the sexes at public worship. The pax was
given at mass in the Western Churches till the 13th century, when Archbishop Walter in 1250 introduced the metal pax, and its use spread to the Continent. The pax is now only given at high masses, and the formal embrace substituted for the kiss is confined to those in the sanc tuary. Also an osculatorium; at first probably a crucifix, then a plate of metal adorned with a figure of Christ crucified, or some other pious picture or emblem, passed among the congregation to be kissed as a substitute for the actual kiss of peace. Its use is almost entirely con fined to religious houses and seminaries. Called also Instrumentum, Tabella Pacis, Pacificale, and Freda.
To give the pax, to exchange the for mal embrace now substituted for the kiss of peace.
PAXO (ancient Paxos), one of the Ionian Islands, lies S. E. of Corfu, has, with the smaller island of Antipaxo (1 square mile), an area of square miles. Pop. (1920) about 5,000. Pro duces wine, olives and olive oil, almonds, oranges, lemons, etc. Capital, Gaion, the seat of a bishop.