SPANIEL, the name given to several varieties or breeds of dogs. Their dis tinguishing characteristics are a rather broad muzzle, remarkably long and full ears, hair plentiful and beautifully waved, particularly that of the ears, tail, and hinder parts of the thighs and legs. The prevailing color is liver and white, sometimes red and white or black and white, and sometimes deep brown, or black on the face and breast, with a tan spot over each eye. The English spaniel is a superior and very pure breed. The King Charles' dog is a small variety of the spaniel used as a lapdog. The Mal tese dog is also a small species of spaniel. The water spaniels, large and small, differ from the common spaniel only in the roughness of their coats, and in uniting the a4uatic propensities of the Newfoundland dog with the fine hunting qualities of their own race. Spaniels possess a great share of intelligence, affection, and obedience, which qualities, combined with much beauty, make them highly prized as companions.
WAR, a war between Spain and the United States, which took place in 1898. It arose in large part out of the condition of affairs in Cuba, where Spanish oppression had led to outbreaks for several generations, in some of which American citizens had been involved. The Cubans had re volted in 1895 and the revolt had been suppressed by the Spanish authorities with much ruthlessness. The severity merely drove discontent under cover and sporadic acts of violence continued with an accompaniment of hardship to the civil population to which the people of the United States could not remain indifferent. As a result of a decision in the direction of intervention come to by the United States Government, Secretary of State Richard Olney offered on April 6, 1896, the friendly offices of the United States for the purpose of saving Cuba from impoverishment and of ameliorat ing the condition of foreigners in the country. The offer was rejected by the Spanish Government and President Cleveland, in his annual message to Con gress in December, 1896, referred to the obligations which might devolve on the United States if Spain should show itself incapable of coping with condi tions. Shortly after President McKinley was inaugurated things began to come to a head and Congress appropriated $50,000 for Cuban relief. As the rela tions between the two countries had begun to assume a critical aspect General Weyler, whose severity had earned for him the hatred of the Cuban population, was recalled by the Span ish Government and General Blanco com missioned to take his place. A period of
plain speaking on the part of the United States succeeded and in response to a declaration that the United States could not view with indifference the in definite prolongation of existing condi tions the Spanish Government promised that on the restoration of order it would establish local autonomy in the island. In the meantime an influential element in the United States promoted the feel ing in favor of war, and fuel was added to the flame by the publication of a letter written by the Spanish Minister criti cizing President McKinley, which had been stolen from the mails. Early in 1898, however, the tragic event occurred which had the result of precipitating the conflict, for on the evening of Feb. 15 the United States battleship "Maine" was blown up in Havana harbor, with a loss of 266 men. The responsibility for the act was never fully demonstrated, though investigations were made by boards ap pointed both by the United States and Spain. The American board reported that a submarine mine was the cause of the explosion, and the general senti ment laid the culpability at the door of the Spanish authorities. As a result of the warlike feeling engendered in the United States, Congress, on March 8, ap propriated $50,000,Q00 for national de fense, and on March 11 mobilization of the regular army was begun. President McKinley had entered into pc,urparlers with the Spanish Government, but not satisfied by its representations decided to . lay the matter before Congress. Meanwhile the Cuban Junta demanded recognition as the lawful government, on April 19 Congress declared the people of Cuba free and independent, de manded the surrender of Spanish author ity over the island, and empowered and directed the President to enforce this resolution by the army and navy. An ultimatum embodying these demands was signed and despatched by the President on April 20, and Spain was given until the 23d to make a satisfactory reply. The Spanish Minister in reply demanded his passports and the American Minis ter in Madrid was handed his passports. Spain declared war on April 24 and the United States followed suit on April 25.