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Collier's New Encyclopedia, Volume 9

Albert Bar Tholomew Bertel
Thorwaldsen, Albert Bar Tholomew (bertel) (toevald Sen), A Danish Sculptor; Born In Copen Hagen, Denmark, Nov. 19, 1770. At First He Helped His Father To Cut Figure Heads In The Royal Dockyard, Then, After Some Years' Study At The Academy Of Arts, He Won The Privilege Of Studying Three Years ...

Alerts Tibullus
Tibullus, Alerts, A Roman Ele• Giac Poet; Born Presumably In Gabii, About 54 B. C. His Prmnomen And Par Entage Are Unknown, Though He Was Cer Tainly Born To A Considerable Estate. His Father Seems To Have Died Early, But His Mother And Sister Survived Him. While Still A Youth ...

Alexis Charles Henri Maurice
Tocqueville, Alexis Charles Henri Maurice Clerel De, A French Politician; Born In Verneuil, July 29, 1805. His Father Was Herve Louis Francois Joseph Bonaventure Clerel, Comte De Tocqueville (1772-1856), Peer Of France, Politician And Historian, And A Writer Of Some Merit. The Son Studied Philology At Metz And At Paris ...

Alfred Tennyson
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord, An English Poet; Born In Somersby, Eng Land, Aug. 6, 1809. He Received His Early Education From His Father, Attended Louth Grammar School, And In Due Course Proceeded To Trinity College, Cam Bridge, Where In 1829 He Won The Chan Cellor's Medal By A Poem In Blank ...

Alsace Lorraine
Alsace-lorraine After Recognition Of The Moral Obliga Tion To Repair The Wrong Done In 1871 By Germany To France And The People Of Alsace-lorraine, The Territories Ceded To Germany By The Treaty Of Frankfort Are Restored To France With Their Fron Tiers As Before 1871, To Date From The Signing ...

Arthur Penrhyn Stanley
Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn, An English Clergyman; Son Of The Bishop Of Norwich, Born In Alderley, Cheshire, Dec. 13, 1815; Was Educated At Rugby Under Dr. Arnold (1829-1834). As A Scholar Of Balliol, He Gained The New Digate, Ireland, And Other University Dis Tinctions; Took A First Class In Classics (1837) ...

Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza, Baruch, Or Benedict De Spinoza, A Dutch Philosopher; Born In Amsterdam, Holland, November 24, 1632. He Was Trained In Talmudic And Other Hebrew Lore By Rabbi Morteira; Acquired A Knowledge Of Latin From The Freethinking Physician Van Den Ende; Came Under The Influence Of The New Philosophic Teaching Of ...

Battle Of Tannenberg
Tannenberg, Battle Of, A Great Battle Which Takes Its Name From A Vil Lage In East Prussia, In The Mazurian Lakes Region, Was One Of The First Im Portant General Engagements Between German And Russian Forces In The World War. In The Early Weeks The Russians, Under Rennenkampf, Had Invaded ...

Charles Haddon Spurgeon
Spurgeon, Charles Haddon, An English Preacher; Born In Kelvedon, England, June 19, 1834. In 1850 His Sympathies Drew Him Toward The Bap Tists, And, Removing To Cambridge In 1851, He Began To Deliver Cottage Sermons In The Neighborhood. At The Age Of 18 He Had Charge Of A Small Baptist ...

Charles Maurice De Talleyrand
Talleyrand - P E R I G O R D, Charles Maurice De Pd-re-goe), Prince Of Benevento, A French Diplomatist; Born In Paris, France, Feb. 13, 1754. Though The Eldest Of Three Brothers He Was, In Consequence Of Lameness Caused By An Accident, De Prived Of His Rights Of Primogeniture, ...

Claudius Nero Cesar Tiberius
Tiberius, Claudius Nero Cesar, A Roman Emperor; Born Nov. 16, 42 B. C.; Was The Son Of Tiberius Claudius Nero And Livia Drusilla, Who Became The Wife Of Octavianus Caesar In 38 B. C. Tiberius And His Brother Drusus Were Brought Up In The Household Of Their Stepfather, Who From ...

Connop Thiblwall
Thiblwall, Connop, An English Bishop And Historian; Born In Stepney, Middlesex, England, Jan. 11, 1797; Was A Child Of Almost Unexampled Precocity, Learned Latin At Three, Read Greek At Four, And At 11 Published "primitive" (1809), A Volume Of Poems And Sermons. He Next Went To Charterhouse; Entered Trinity College, ...

Devastated Areas
Devastated Areas Germany Undertakes To Devote Her Eco Nomic Resources Directly To The Physical Restoration Of The Invaded Areas. The Reparations Commission Is Authorized To Require Germany To Replace The De Stroyed Articles By The Delivery Of Ani Mals, Machinery, Etc., Existing In Ger Many, And To Manufacture Materials Re ...

Diseases Of The Throat
Throat, Diseases Of The. The Diseases Of The Throat Met With In The Practice Of Medicine Do Not Differ Materi Ally From The Diseases Of Other Parts Of The Body. The Most Frequent Form Of Sore Throat Is That Of A Simple Erythemat Ous Inflammation. The Mucous Membrane Of The ...

East Prussia
East Prussia The Southern And Eastern Frontier Of East Prussia As Touching Poland Is To Be Fixed By Plebiscites, The First In The Re Gency Of Allenstein Between The Southern Frontier Of East Prussia And The Northern Frontier, Or Regierungsbezirk Allenstein, From Where It Meets The Boundary Be Tween East ...

Eclipses Of The Sun
Sun, Eclipses Of The, Caused By The Moon Coming Between The Earth And The Sun, May Be Either Partial, Total, Or Annular. In A Partial Eclipse The Ob Server Is Situated In The Penumbra Of The Moon's Shadow, And Only A Part Of The Sun's Light Is Cut Off On ...

Edmund Spenser
Spenser, Edmund, One Of The Major English Poets, Born In London In 1552; Educated At The Merchant Taylors' School And At Pembroke College, Cam Bridge. His Parents Were In Moderate Circumstances, And He Owed His Educa Tion To Certain Charitable Foundations. His Preparation For College Was Directed By Richard Mulcaster, ...

Ellen Alice Terry
Terry, Ellen Alice, An English Actress; Born In Coventry, England, Feb. 27, 1848, And Made Her First Appearance On The Stage During Charles Kean's Shakespearian Revivals In 1858, Playing The Parts Of Mamillius In "the Winter's Tale" And Prince Arthur In "king John." When Only 14 She Was A Member ...

Emanuel Swedenborg
Swedenborg, Emanuel, Founder Of The Church Of The New Jerusalem, And One Of The Most Distinguished Men Of Science Of The 18th Century; Born In Stockholm, Sweden, Jan. 29, 1688. He Was Carefully Educated Under The Care Of His Father, Bishop Of Skara, In W. Gothland, In The Principles Of ...

Epistles To The Thessalonians
Thessalonians, Epistles To The, The Pauline Epistles. The First Epistle To The Thessalonians, The Earliest Extant Epistle Of The Apostle Paul, Was Written At Corinth Probably About The Beginning Of The Year A. D. 53, Or, At Latest, In A. D. 54, Within A Year And A Half Of The ...

Finance
Finance Powers To Which German Territory Is Ceded Will Assume A Certain Portion Of The German Pre-war Debt, The Amount To Be Fixed By The Reparations Commission On The Basis Of The Ratio Between The Revenue And Of The Ceded Territory And Germany's Total Revenues For The Three Years Preceding ...

Fort Sumter
Sumter, Fort, (named After Gen. Thomas Sumter, 1734-1832), An Amer Ican Fort Associated With Both The Be Ginning And The End Of The Civil War; Built Of Brick, In The Form Of A Truncated Pentagon 38 Feet High, On A Shoal, Partly Artificial, In Charleston Harbor, 3% Miles From The ...

Frank Hamilton Spearman
Spearman, Frank Hamilton, An American Author, Born In Buffalo, N. Y., In 1859. He Was Educated In Public And Private Schools And At Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis. He Wrote, Besides Many Short Stories In Magazines Naturally Consist Of A Simple Pole Of Tough Wood Sharpened To A Point At One ...

Franz Eduard Todleben
Todleben, Franz Eduard, A Russian Military Engineer; Son Of One Of The Kaufmanns; Born In Mitau, Kurland, May 20, 1818; Educated At Riga, And At The College Of Engineers In St. Peters Burg. He Served In The Caucausus Against Schamyl, 1848-1851, And Under General Schilders In The Danubian Campaign Of ...

Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe
Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher, An American Novelist, Daugh Ter Of Lyman Beecher And Sister Of Henry Ward Beecher; Born In Litchfield, Conn., June 14, 1811; Was Educated At Litchfield Academy And At The School Of Her Sister Catherine In Hartford; At The Age Of 14 She Began Teaching; In 1832 ...

Herbert Spencer
Spencer, Herbert, An English Philosopher; Born In Derby, England, April 27, 1820. His Father Was A Schoolmaster In That Town. At The Age Of 17 He Entered On The Pro Fession Of A Railway Engineer, In Lon Don; But About Eight Years After Ward He Gave Up This Profession, Which ...

High Treason
Treason, High, That Crime Which Is Directly Committed Against The Supreme Authority Of The State, Considered To Be The Greatest Crime That Can Be Com Mitted. Formerly In England Certain Offenses Against Private Superiors Were Ranked As Petit Or Petty Treason, And It Was In Opposition To Such Offenses That ...

International Labor Organization
International Labor Organization Members Of The League Of Nations Agree To Establish A Permanent Organi Zation To Promote International Adjust Ment Of Labor Conditions, To Consist Of An Annual International Labor Conference And An International Labor Office. The Former Is Composed Of Four Repre Setatives Of Each State, Two From ...

J O H A
Tilly, J O H A N N Tserklies, Count Von, One Of The Most Notable Generals Of The Thirty Years' War; Born In The Castle Of Tilly, Brabant, Belgium, In February, 1559. He Was At First Edu Cated Under Jesuit Supervision For The Priesthood, But A Strong Bias Toward A ...

Jean Lambert T A
T A En, Jean Lambert, A French Revolutionist; Born In Paris In 1769. His Talent For Writing And Speak Ing Soon Brought Him To The Front At The Revolution. After Being For Some Time Connected With The "moniteur," He Be Came Editor Of The "ami Des Citoyens," A Journal After ...

Jeremy Taylor
Taylor, Jeremy, "the Modern Chrysostona"; Born In Cambridge, Eng Land (baptized Aug. 15, 1613). He Studied As A Sizar At Caius College, And Took His Degree Of M.a. In 1633. Shortly After He Was Admitted To Holy Orders, And His Fine Appearance And Vivid Elo Quence Soon Attracted Admiration. He ...

Johannes Sturm
Sturm, Johannes, A German Edu Cational Reformer; Born In Sleiden, Luxemburg, Oct. 1, 1507. In His 15th Year He Was Sent To School At Liege And Continued His Studies At The College Of Louvain. He Devoted Himself To Ac Quiring A Latin Style And Studied Cicero Assiduously. In 1529 He ...

John Sullivan
Sullivan, John, An American Mili Tary Officer; Born In Berwick, Me., Feb. 17, 1740; Studied Law And Obtained A Lucrative Practice In Durham, N. H. He Was Commissioned A Major Of Militia In 1772; Represented New Hampshire At The Continental Congress Held In Phil Adelphia, Pa., In 1774; Was Appointed ...

Jonathan Swif T
Swif T, Jonathan Dean Of St. Patrick's, Was Born In Dublin On Nov. 30, 1667, The Posthumous Son Of Jonathan Swift, An Irish Lawyer Of Eng Lish Parentage, By Abigail Erick Of Lei Cester. He Was Educated At Kilkenny And Trinity College, Dublin, From Which He Graduated With Difficulty. During ...

Julius Oscar Stieglitz
Stieglitz, Julius (oscar), An American Chemist, Born At Hoboken, N. J., In 1867. He Was Educated In Ger Many, And From 1892 To 1915 Was Con Nected With The Chemical Department Of The University Of Chicago. He Was A Member Of Many Scientific Societies, And In 1917 Was A Member ...

Lake Superior
Superior, Lake, The Extreme W. And Most Extensive Of The Great Lakes Of The St. Lawrence Basin, In North Amer Ica, Being The Largest Existing Body Of Fresh Water. It Is Of A Triangular Form, Extending Between Lat. 40° 30' And 49° N., And Lon. 80° And 20' W. Its ...

Laurence Sterne
Sterne, Laurence, A British Au Thor, Was The Son Of Lieutenant Roger Sterne Of The British Army, And Agnes Nuttle, An Irishwoman, Widow Of A Cap Tain Hebert. He Was Born In Clonmel, Ireland, On Nov. 24, 1713, And Went To School In Halifax From The Age Of 10 Till ...

Marine Steam Turbines
Steam Turbines, Marine. The First Vessel To Be Fitted With Turbines Was The "turbinia." In 1897 She Was Equipped With Turbines Of The Parsons Type, Three Engines Being Used, High Pressure, Intermediate And Low. Each Shaft Was Fitted With Three Propellers. She Attained The Remarkable Speed Of 341/2 Knots Per ...

Method Of Least Squares
Squares, Method Of Least, An Arithmetical Process Of Great Importance For Combining Observations, Or Sets Of Observations, So As To Obtain The Most Probable Value Of A Quantity Which De Pends On These Observations. It Is In Fact The Scientific Method Of Taking Certain Averages, And It Finds Its Most ...

Military Tactics
Tactics, Military, The Science Which Enables One Of Two Opposing Bodies Of Troops To Be Stronger Than The Other At Every Crisis Of An Engagement. Strategy (q. V.), Which Has Precisely The Same Objects, Merges Into Tactics As The Enemy Comes Within Striking Distance, And The Latter Science Is Therefore ...

Nathan Straus
Straus, Nathan, An American Merchant And Philanthropist, Born In Rhenish Bavaria In 1848. At The Age Of Six He Came To The United States With His Family. He Was Educated In The Pub Lic Schools Of Talbotton, Ga., And At Packard's Business College. In 1866 He Became A Member Of ...

Naval Tactics
Tactics, Naval, The Art Of Ma Noeuvring Ships And Fleets For The Pur Pose Of Battle. Naval Strategy, On The Other Hand, Is The Science Of Combining And Employing Fleets Or Single Ships In Order To Carry Out Defined Operations At Sea Or Against An Enemy's Coast, For Ob Taining ...

Peter Alexis Vassilivich Suvorof
Suvorof - Ry3inikski, Peter Alexis Vassilivich, Count Of, Prince Italiski, A Russian Military Officer; Born In Finland, Nov. 25, 1729; And In His 17th Year Entered The Service As A Common Soldier. He Served In The War Against Sweden, In The Seven Years' War, In Poland, And Against The Turks, ...

Pierre Andre De Suffren
Suffren Saint-tropes, Pierre Andre De, A French Naval Hero; Born A Younger Son Of A Good Provence Fam Ily, July 17, 1726. At 14 He Entered The Navy, And First Saw Fire In The Indecisive Action With The English Off Toulon In 1744. He Took Part In The Unsuccessful Attempt ...

Precious Stones
Stones, Precious, Numerous Min Eral Substances, And One Of Two Products Of Organic Origin, Used In Jewelry And For Other Ornamental Purposes On Account Of Their Rarity And Beauty. The List Of Stones Which May Be Regarded As Precious Can Not Be Definitely Limited, As Certain Sub Stances Appear And ...

Preventing Of War
Preventing Of War Upon Any War, Or Threat Of War, The Council Will Meet To Consider What Com Mon Action Shall Be Taken. Members Are Pledged To Submit Matters Of Dis Pute To Arbitration Or Inquiry And Not To Resort To War Until Three Months After The Award. Members Agree ...

Publius Terentius Afer
Terentius Afer, Publius (more Commonly Terence), A Roman Poet; Born In Carthage, Whence His Surname Afer, 185 B. C. Some Authorities Place Him 10 Years Earlier. He Was The Last Of The Comic Dramatists Of Rome Of Whom We Have Anything Remaining. The Extant Records Of The Life Of Terence ...

Quintus Sep Timius Florens
Tertullianus, Quintus Sep Timius Florens (more Commonly Tertullian), A Theologian Of The West Ern Church; Born Of Heathen Parents In Carthage About 160. His Father Was A Roman Centurion Under The Proconsol Of Africa. The Details Of His Life Are Little Known, But The Strongly Marked Charac Ter Of The ...

Reparation And Restitution
Reparation And Restitution "the Allied And Associated Governments Affirm, And Germany Accepts, The Respon Sibility Of Herself And Her Allies For Caus Ing All The Loss And Damage To Which The Allied And Associated Governments And Their Nationals Have Been Subjected As A Consequence Of The War Imposed Upon Them ...

Richard Pearson Strong
Strong, Richard Pearson, An American Scientist, Born At Fortress Monroe, Va., In 1872. He Was Educated At Yale University And In 1897 Received The Degree Of M.d. From Johns Hopkins University. He Also Studied At The Uni Versity Of Berlin, And Received Honorary Degrees From Yale And Harvard. After Having ...

Russell Sturgis
Sturgis, Russell, An American Architect; Born In Baltimore Co., Md., 1836, Was Graduated At The College Of The City Of New York In 18.',6; Studied Architecture In Europe, And Practiced Till 1880, When He Went To Europe To Reside, Because Of Failing Health. In 1885, However, He Became Active In ...

Samuel Jones Tilden
Tilden, Samuel Jones, An Amer Ican Statesman; Born In New Lebanon, N. Y., Feb. 9, 1814; Was Educated At The University Of New York; Studied Law With Benjamin F. Butler, And Was Ad Mitted To The Bar In 1841; Began Prac Tice In New York City, And Became Ac Tively ...

Sir Henry Morton Stanley
Stanley, Sir Henry Morton, An English Explorer; Born Near Denbigh, Wales, In 1840; Name Originally John Rowlands. When Three Years Old He Be Came An Inmate Of The Poorhouse At St. Asaph, Where He Made Such Progress In The School That He Was Employed As A Teacher Of Other Children ...

Sir William Temple
Temple, Sir William, An Eng Lish Statesman; Born In London, In 1628; Was Educated At Emmanuel College, Cam Bridge. He Afterward Passed Six Years In France, Holland, Flanders, And Ger Many. On His Return (1654), Not Choos Ing To Accept Office Under Cromwell, He Occupied Himself In The Study Of ...

Sir William Thomson
Thomson, Sir William, Lord Kelvin, A British Scientist; Born In Belfast, Ireland, June 26, 1824; Was Edu Cated At Glasgow University And Cam Bridge University; And Was Professor Of Natural Philosophy In The University Of Glasgow After 1846. He Was Electrician For The Atlantic Cables Of 1857-1858 And 1865-1866, Being ...

Society Of Tammany
Tammany, Society Of, Or Co Lumbian Order, Formed In New York City In 1789, As A Counterweight To The So-called "aristocratic" Society Of The Cincinnati; Deriving Its Name From A Noted Friendly Delaware Chief Named Tammany, Who Had Been Canonized By The Soldiers Of The Revolution As The Pa Tron ...

Sow Thistle
Sow Thistle, The Popular Name Given To A Species Of A Genus Of Com Posite Plants, Sonchus. There Are About 50 Species, Mostly Herbaceous, But Some Forming Shrubs Or Small Trees. Some Of The First May Be Considered Cosmopolitan, While The Woody Sorts Are Almost Re Stricted To The Canaries ...

Space
Space, In Geometry, The Room In Which An Object, Actual Or Imaginary, Ex Ists. All Material Objects Possess Length, Breadth, And Thickness; In Other Words, They Exist In Space Of Three Dimensions. Plane Surfaces Have Only Two Dimensions —length And Breadth, And Straight Lines But One Dimension—length. Hence We Have ...

Spain
Spain, A Kingdom In The S. W. Of Europe, Forming With Portugal The Great S. W. Peninsula Of Europe. It Is Sepa Rated From France On The N. E. By The Chain Of The Pyrenees, And Is Otherwise Bounded By Portugal And The Atlantic And Mediterranean. In Greatest Breadth N. ...

Spaniel
Spaniel, The Name Given To Several Varieties Or Breeds Of Dogs. Their Dis Tinguishing Characteristics Are A Rather Broad Muzzle, Remarkably Long And Full Ears, Hair Plentiful And Beautifully Waved, Particularly That Of The Ears, Tail, And Hinder Parts Of The Thighs And Legs. The Prevailing Color Is Liver And ...

Spartaciis
Spartaciis, The Leader Of The Roman Slaves In The Great Revolt Which Broke Out About 73 B. C.; A Thracian By Birth, Who From A Shepherd Became A Leader Of A Band Of Robbers When He Was Captured And Sold To A Trainer Of Gladiators At Capua. On The Murder ...

Species
Species, In Biology, A Somewhat Am Biguous Term Used To Denote A Limited Group Of Organisms, Resembling Each Other, And Capable Of Reproducing Similar Organisms, Animal Or Vegetable, As The Case May Be. A Species Is Defined By Haeckel As "the Sum Of All Cycles Of Re Production Which, Under ...

Spectroscope
Spectroscope, An Instrument For Observing Spectra, Or For Spectrum Analysis. With A Single Glass Prism, The Few Most Prominent Lines In A Solar Spectrum May Be Seen By Using A Narrow Slit To Admit The Light, Which Was The First Great Improvement Made Upon Newton's Experiment, Since A Hole Or ...

Spectrum
Spectrum, In Optics, The Colored Image Or Images Produced When The Rays From Any Source Of Light Are Decom Posed Or Dispersed By Refraction Through A Prism. It Has Been Proved That White Ness Is Simply A Totality Of Effect Pro Duced By The Simultaneous Effects Of Many Colors Falling ...

Spelling Reform
Spelling Reform, The Purpose Of Which Is To Simplify Spelling By The Elimination Of Meaningless Letters. In 1898 The American National Education Association Adopted Twelve Words For Simplification In Spelling: Program, Tho, Altho, Thoro, Thorofare, Thru, Thruout, Catalog, Prolog, Decalog, Demagog, And Pedagog. In 1906 There Was Organized In New ...

Sphere
Sphere, In Astronomy, A Term For Merly Applied To Any One Of The Concen Tric And Eccentric Revolving Transparent Shells In Which The Heavenly Bodies Were Supposed To Be Fixed, And By Which They Were Carried So As To Produce Their Ap Parent Motions. The Word Now Signifies The Vault ...

Sphinx
Sphinx, A Greek Word Signifying The "strangler," Applied To Certain Symbol Ical Forms Of Egyptian Origin, Having The Body Of A Lion, A Human Or An Animal Head, And Two Wings. Various Other Combinations Of Animal Forms Have Been Called By This Name, Though They Are Rather Griffins Or Chimeras. ...

Spinal Anesthesia
Spinal Anesthesia, Insensibility To Pain Produced By Injecting An Anws Thetic Into The Spinal Fluid. It Was First Used By Dr. Leonard Corning, Of New York, In The Year 1885, And In Europe By August Bier, Of Berlin. It Is Chiefly Of Value Where The Health Of The Patient Renders ...

Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord, The Name Given In Anatomy To The Great Cord Or Rod Of Nervous Matter Which Is Inclosed Within The Backbone Or Spine Of Vertebrates. The Spinal Cord In Man, Which Is From 15 To 18 Inches Long, Has Direct Connec Tion With The Brain By Means Of The ...

Spinal Meningitis
Spinal Meningitis, An Inflamma Tion Of The Meninges, The Membranes Covering The Spinal Cord. The Mem Branes Are Three In Number: The Pia Mater, Which Is In Contact With The Sub Stance Of The Cord; The Dura Mater, Which Serves As A Lining To The Spinal Canal; And The Araehnoid, ...

Spine
Spine, The Term Applied To The Back Bone Of A Vertebrated Animal, And So Called From The Thorn-like Processes Of The Vertebrm. The Human Vertebral Column Is Composed, In The Child, Of 33 Separate Pieces, But In The Adult The Number Is Only 26, Several Pieces Having Become Blended Together. ...

Spirit
Spirit, An Immaterial Intelligent Sub Stance Or Being; Vital Or Active Princi Ple, Essence, Force, Or Energy, As Distinct From Matter; Life Or Living Substance Considered Apart From Material Or Cor Poreal Existence; As, The Soul Of Man, As Distinguished From The Body Wherein It Dwells. Hence, A Ghost; A ...

Spiritualism
Spiritualism, The Term Used In Philosophy To Indicate The Opposite Of Materialism, And The Belief In The Existence And Life Of The Spirit Apart From, And Independent Of, The Material Organism, And In The Reality And Value Of Intelligent Intercourse Between Spirits Embodied And Spirits Disembodied. The Belief In Spirit ...

Spitzbergen
Spitzbergen, A Group Of Three Large And Several Small Islands In The Arctic Ocean; Between Lat. 76° 30' And 80° 40' N.; Lon. 9° And 22° E.; Nearly Equidistant Between Greenland And Nova Zembla, The Largest Being West Spitz Bergen And Northeast Land. Total Area About 27,000 Square Miles. The ...

Spleen
Spleen, One Of The Abdominal Glands At The Left Side Of The Body, Close To The Stomach And Pancreas. It Is Somewhat Oval-shaped And Concave Internally, Where It Is Divided By A Fissure Named The Hilum. Here Blood-vessels Enter And Leave The Organ, And The Nerves Also En Ter. The ...

Spokane
Spokane, A City Of Washington, The County-seat Of Spokane Co. It Is On The Northern Pacific, The Great Northern, The Oregon-washington Railroad And Navigation Company, The Spokane In Ternational, The Chicago, Milwaukee And St. Paul, The Chicago, Burlington And Quincy, And Other Railroads. It Has In All 6 Trans-continental Lines ...

Sponge
Sponge, Spongida, A Horny Substance Valued For Its Ready Imbibition Of Water, And Consisting Of The Keratode Skeleton Of Certain Protozoa Or Lowest Animals. A Sponge Is Thus A Colony Of Living Ani Mals. Such A Colony Communicates With The Outer World By Means Of Certain Openings (capable Of Being ...

Or Age Of Stone
Stone Age, Or Age Of Stone, Is A Term Used In Archeology To Denote The Condition Of A People Using Stone As The Material For The Cutting Tools And Weapons Which, In A Higher Condition Of Culture, Were Made Of Metals. The :lc Pression "age," When Used In This Con ...

Or Laced2e1vion Sparta
Sparta, Or Laced2e1vion, A Cele Brated City Of Ancient Greece; Capital Of Laconia And Of The Spartan State, And The Chief City In The Peloponnesus; On The W. Bank Of The Eurotas River, And Embraced A Circuit Of 6 Miles. Sparta Was A Scattered City Consisting Of Five Separate Quarters. ...

Or Love Apple Tomato
Tomato, Or Love Apple (lycopersicum Esculenturn), A Plant Of The Natural Order Solanacem, So Named By Tournefort, But Subsequently Combined By Linnaeus With The Genus Solanum, Now, However, Recognized As A Distinct Genus Under The Name Of The Earlier Bot Anist. It Is Distinguished From Solanum By The Stamens Having ...

Or Stuttering Stammering
Stammering, Or Stuttering, An Infirmity Of Speech, The Result Of Fail Ure In Co-ordinate Action Of Certain Muscles And Their Appropriate Nerves. It Is Analogous To Some Kinds Of Lameness, To Cramp Or Spasm, Or Partial Paralysis Of The Arms, Wrists, Hands, And Fingers, Occasionally Suffered By Violinists, Pian Ists, ...

Or Sze Ma
Sze-ma, Or Sl7ma Kwang, One Of The Most Eminent Statesmen And Writers Of China, And As A Historian Second Only To Sze-ma Ts'ien; Born In 1009. He Is Renowned As The Author Of "the Compre Hensive Mirror Of History," In 294 Books, The Labor Of 19 Years. It Covers A ...

Or Tabu Taboo
Taboo, Or Tabu, From Tapu, A Polynesian Word, Denoting An Institution Which Was Formerly In Existence Through Out Polynesia And New Zealand, But Has Now To A Large Extent Disappeared Before The Spread Of Christianity And Civiliza Tion. The Word Signifies Something Set Apart, Either As Consecrated Or Accursed, The ...

Or Tehran Teheran
Teheran, Or Tehran, The Capital Of Persia; 70 Miles S. Of The Shore Of The Caspian Sea; On A Wide Plain, Dotted Here And There With Mud-built Villages, And Pierced With Many Circular Pits, Which Reach Down To The Great Subter Ranean Watercourses, On Which, In This Region, The Life ...

Or Teiejens Titiens
Titiens, Or Teiejens, Teresa, A German Operatic Singer; Born In Ham Burg, Germany July 18, 1831. She Ap Peared As Lucrezia In Her Native Town In Her 16th Year, And Soon Established Her Position As The Chief Lyric Artist In Germany Before Her Debut In London, On April 13, 1858, ...

Or Thag Thug
Thug, Or Thag, The Name Given In The N. Provinces Of India To A Member Of A Fraternity Who Looked On Murder As The Sole Means Of Staying The Wrath Of The Goddess Kali, And Derived Their Prin Cipal Means Of Support From The Plunder Of Their Victims. In Old ...

Or Theatre Theater
Theater, Or Theatre, A Building Devoted To The Representation Of Dramatic Spectacles; A Playhouse. Among The Greeks And Romans Theaters Were The Chief Public Edifices Next To The Temples. The Theater Of Marcellus At Rome, The External Walls Of Which Are Still In Exist Ence, Contained Seats For 30,000 Specta ...

Or Theresa Teresa
Teresa, Or Theresa, St., One Of The Most Remarkable Of The Women Saints Of The Modern Roman Calendar; Born In Avila, Old Castile, Spain, March 28, 1515, Of The Noble House Of Cepeda. Even As A Child She Was Remarkable For Piety Of A Most Enthusiastic Kind; And, Educated In ...

Or Thiva Thebes
Thebes, Or Thiva, The Capital Of Bceotia In Ancient Greece; Founded, Ac Cording To Tradition, By A Colony Of Phoe Nicians, Under Cadmus, 1550 B. C., Or 1400 B. C. They Were Driven Out By The Bceo Tians, 1124 B. C. Platma, One Of The Boeo Tian Cities, Revolted From ...

Or Trient Trent
Trent, Or Trient, An Old Town Of Italy In The Tyrol; On The Left Bank Of The Adige; 54 Miles N. N. E. Of Verona. It Has Two Suburbs, San Martino And Santa Croce, And In Its Environs Villages Rise Beautifully Above One Another On The Mountain Slopes. Of The ...

Or Windpipe Trachea
Trachea, Or Windpipe, The Tube Extending From The Larynx, Or Organ Of The Voice, And From The Level Of The Fifth Cervical Vertebra To The Third Dorsal Ver Tebra, At Which Latter Point The Trachea Bifurcates Or Divides Into Two Main Bron Chi Or Divisions, One Supplying Each Lung With ...