Murgh ; Tair, . . ARAB. Chiriah ; Churl, .
Inlet, • . . . . BURM. MAMA, MALAY.
Oiseau, Fa. Paksi ; Pfiksi,. . „ Ornis ; Ornides (p/.), Gil. Parinda, . . . Pmts.
Vogel, - GER Patehi ; Kurvi, . TAM.
Taippor ; Ait, . HEIL Pitta ; Pitti, . . TEL.
The birds of Eastern and Southern Asia have been described by many naturalists. In 1831 a catalogue of 156 species, collected by Major Franklin on the banks of the Ganges and the Vindhian range of mountains, was published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.
In 1832 a catalogue of 226 species, collected by Colonel Sykes in the Bombay Presidency, was also published in the Proceedings of that society. This was undoubtedly the most valuable enumera tion of the birds of India published, and con tained descriptions, with many highly interesting observations, on the habits, food, and structure of many of the species.
In 1859 Dr. Jerdon published a catalogue of 390 birds of the Peninsula of India, with brief notes on their habits and geographical distribu tion. Subsequent to this, he issued a series of supplements, followed by a paper from tho pen of Lord Arthur Hay, Marquess of Tweeddale, who, till his death in 1878, continued to enrich the literature of this branch of science. In 1881, his nephew, Captain Ramsay, edited a complete reprint of all the Marquess of Tweeddale's orni thological works. Mr. B. Hodgson of Nepal furnished a large amount of valuable information on the ornithology of the Himalaya ; General Bardwicke5; labours were of great value, his collection being described in 1832 by J. E. Gray. Captain Tickell, Bengal army, also omtritsited largely to the stock of knowledge regarding the ornithology of Central India ; and the other names which maybe added to this list of natural ists are Captain J. D. Herbert, who collected in tho Himalaya ; Dr. N. Wallich, who collected in Nepal ; Dr. M'Clelland, who added birds from Assarn and Burma; Dr. W. Griffith, whose col lections of birds were made in Afghanistan ; Dr. Hugh Falconer, in N. India ; and Captain (now General) Richard Strachey, in Kamaon and Ladakh. Dr. Stoliczka collected in Tibet and the Himalaya.a at elevations from 2000 to 16,000 feet, and nptices of the birds appeared in the Ibis, 1866 7-8. The birds of the Tenanserica Provinces have been largely described by the Rev. Dr. Mason, and those of Ceylon by Dr. E. Kelaart, Edgar L. Layard, and Captain Legge. These were accompanied by a continued series of valnabl c articles from Mr. E. Blyth, who was constant in
his pursuit of science. Dr. llorsfield and Mr. Moore's catalogue of birds in the India Ilouso Museum, appeared in 1856 and 18.58; and Jer don's Birds of India, printed in 1862 and 1861, and the reprint of 1877, have done much to com plete our knowledge of this class of the animal kingdom. The comprehensive work of Allan Hume, 0.13. and Major C. II. T. Marshall, on 148 of the Game Birds of India, and Allan Hume's list of abovo a thousand of the birds of India, have added many forms to those which previous writers had described. Eastwards from the Malay Peninsula into the Eastern Archipelago, the labours of Dr. T. Horsfield in Sumatra, Sir T. Stamford Raffles in Java, Mr. G. Finlayson Dr. Heifers, Dr. Theodore Cantor, Professor Bikrnore, and Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace, have given to Europe a very full knowledge of the birds of that extensive region.
Thy birds of the East Indies are scarcely less bai.atiful than numerous. Perhaps the choicest of them are the Himalayan pheasants, distin guished for their very graceful and rich plumage, and the beautiful paradise birds of the Eastern Archipelago. The Himalayan bustard is remark able for its form and varied colour. The paradise birds of Aru at their pairing season have sacaleli or dancing parties amongst the Larger forest trees with immense heads, spreading branches, and Large but scattered leaves, givine. a clear space for the birds to play and exhibit their plumes. One of the birds is nearly as large as a crow, and is of rich coffee-brown colour. The head and neck is of a puro straw yellow above, and rich metallic green beneath; and long plumy tufts of golden orange feathers spring from the sides beneath each wing, and when the bird is in repose, are partly con cealed by them. At the time of its excitement, however, the wings are bent over its back, the head is beilt down and stretched out, and the long plumes are raised up and expanded till they form two magnificent gold fans, striped with deep red at tho base. When seen in this attitude, it really deserves its name. A dozen or twenty full-plumaged male birds assemble together, raise up their wings, stretch out their necks, and elevate their exquisite plumes, keeping them in a con tinual vibration. Between whiles they fly across from branch to branch in great excitement, so that the whole tree is filled with waving plumes in every variety of attitude and motion.