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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 1

Aka Charv
Charv,aka, A Hindu Philosopher Who Lived About The Third Century Of The Christian Era, And Founded A School Of Materialism. The Atheistical Philosophy Which He Put Forward Is Called Loka Yata, And Its Followers Loka-yati. It Forms One Of The Six Atheistical Systems Of Philosophy Current Amongst The Eastern Aryan ...

Alexander Dow
Dow, Alexander, Translated And Published Ferislita's History Of The Mahornedmas Of Asia. Do1v, A Vessel Employed In The Trade Between The Red Sea, The Arabian Coast, The Gulf Of L'ersia, And The W. Coasts Of India, In Cutch, Gujerat, And Malabar. They Were Also Used In The Persian Gulf For ...

Arab
Arab. Chabu, . . . Maij.t. Nga Youk Thi, . Burnt. Leda Mere, . . . Ta-ha-tsiau, . Chin. Lada China, . . Lah-tsiau, . . „ Chabe Aabrang, . . Lull Mirich, . . Dual% Filfil I Slab, . . Mirchie, . Gua. Mallaghai, . . . Tan. Chabai, ...

Arab Riso Dma
Riso Dma, . Arab. Jilphlota Jypal ; . Besu. Dund, . . . . Hannakoh, . . . Bunm. Jayapala; Sansk. . . Can. . . . . Jamalgota, . . . Hind. Nepalam, . . . Dori, Malay. Nervalam, . . Tam. Nirvala, . . . Maleal. Nepalam, . ...

Beng
. Beng. Mach Hagbrul, . Beng. Travancore, Malabar, Ceylon, Throughout Bengal Up To The S.e. Himalaya Terai, Burma, Nepal, China, And Malayana. It Is Remarkably Beautiful. Leopardus Japonensis, Gray, Of Japan, And L. Brachyurus, Swanhoe, Of Formosa. Felis Marmorata, Martial, Marbled Tiger Cat. F. Charltoni, Gray. F. 0g,ilbii, Hodgs. F. ...

Bhuniya Or
Bhuniya Or Bhuiya, A Tribe In Varied Stages Of Civilisation, And Of Varied Religious Development. Buchanan Hamilton Found Them In Bhagulpur, Bihar, And Divajpur, And He Considered Them To Be The Remains Of The Armies Of Jarasandha. Some Of The Tribe Live Strictly As Hindus; While Others Eat Beef, Pork, ...

Bhutan
Bhutan, On The N.e. Of British India, Is Situated Between Lat. 26° 30' And N., And Long. 88° 45' To 92° 25' E., And Occupies From The Southern Declivities Of The Great Central Ridge Of The Himalaya Mountains, To The Level Ground In Front Of That Portion Of Their Inferior ...

Bibla Honi
Bibla-honi. Mann. Pterocarpus Marsupium. - Bible, From The Greek Biblos And Latin Biblum, A Book. Christians Divide Their Sacred Book Into Two Portions, The Old And New Testaments. The Former Contains The Writings Of Moses And Other Prophets, And Is The Canonical Book Of The Semitic Religion Of The Jews ...

Bibos Cavi Frons
Bibos Cavi Frons, The Gyal; Garfeus Gaurus. Bibiva. Maltn. Semecarpus Anacardium. Biciie Da Mar. Iiolothuria, Sp. }foy-shun, . . . Odin. Ifolothurion, . . Lat. Swalloe Of Traders, Eno. Suala, Sialav. Sea-slug,sea Cucumber, „ Tripang, , . . Beebe De Mer,. Pout., Fx. Balate, . . . Species Of Holothuria ...

Bidpai Or
Bidpai Or Pilpai Is The Name Given To The Author Of The Oldest Known Collection Of Tales, But No Edition Of Them Is In Existence. Tradition Says That They Were Written In Sanskrit By A Brahman Of This Name, For The Benefit Of Dabishlim, His King, And To Them Almost ...

Bigha
Bigha, Bhiga, Or Beegha, A Land Measure Varying In Extent In Different Parts Of India. The Standard Bigha Of The Revenue Surveys Of The North-west Provinces Is Equal To 3025 Square Yards, Or 5-sths Of An Acre. In Bengal, The Bigha, Contained Only 1600 Square Yards, Or Little Less Than ...

Bignonia
Bignonia. This Genus Of Plants Is One Of The Bignoniacem, And 18 Species Occur In China, The Moluccas, Assam, Morung, Peninsula Of India, And Malacca. Amongst Them Are B. Adenophylla Of Burma, B. Undulata Of Hindustan And Gujerat, B. Multijuga Of Sylhet And Penang. The Leaves Of B. Chica Yield ...

Bijapur
Bijapur, Formerly The Capital Of The Adal Shahi Dynasty, Which Ruled There From A.d. 1501 To A.d. 1660. Yusuf Khan, A Son Of Murad Ii. Of Anatolia, Was Purchased, In 1499, At Ahmadabad, For The Bijapur Body Guard. But In 1501 He Assumed Independence, Under The Title Of Adal Shah. ...

Bijayanagar
, Bijayanagar, Also Written Vijianagar, Said To Be Properly Vidia-nagar, Or The Town Of T> • Learning, Was Founded, According To One Account, By Two Fugitives From Telingana ; According To Prinsep, In 1338, By Bilal Of Karnata, Who Resisted Mahomed Toghalak, And Founded Vijia Nagar. • In 1347, Krishna ...

Bikanir
. Bikanir, Long. 73° 22' E., Lat. 27° 56' N., Is The Chief Town Of A Sovereignty, Chiefly In The Great Indian Desert, Which Has An Area Of 17,676 Square Miles. The Population Was Estimated By Tod In The Beginning Of The 19th Century At About 539,000, And The Revenue ...

Bird
Bird Of Paradise. Papua Birds. Burong Mati, . . . Arm Ave De Pardiso, . Pour. Manuk Devata, . . Jai. I Eurong Papua, . Tern. Burong Devata, . Ma Lax. Soffu, Sioffu, . . . „ Birds Of Paradise, The Most Beautiful Of Winged Creatures, Were Fabled, In The ...

Birdlime
Birdlime. Kilut; Gatap, . Malay. I L'issini, Tam. Ptits-chei-klei, . „ Banks, Tel. The Substances Known In Europe Under This Name Are The Viscid Juices Of Several Trees. One Is Prepared In Europe From The Middle Bark Of The Holly, By Boiling It Seven Or Eight Hours In Water, Then ...

Birds
Birds, Ayes. Murgh ; Tair, . . Arab. Chiriah ; Churl, . Inlet, • . . . . Burm. Mama, Malay. Oiseau, Fa. Paksi ; Pfiksi,. . „ Ornis ; Ornides (p/.), Gil. Parinda, . . . Pmts. Vogel, - Ger Patehi ; Kurvi, . Tam. Taippor ; Ait, . ...

Birth
Birth, Second Birth Or Twice Born' Are Terms Frequently Met With In Writings On The Hindu People, And Indicate That The Person To Whom It Is Applied Has Received The Zonar Or Sacrificial Cord. In This Respect It Resembles The Confirma Tion Of The Episcopal Church Of England. The Term ...

Blatti Maleal
Blatti. Maleal. Sonneratia Acida. Bleaching. Nikbarna, . . . Hind. I Salary Pannukiradu, Tam. Khumbi Karna, . „ J Nana Padam, . . Tel. In India, The Substances Present In Goods Which Oppose The Bleaching Process Are First Removed By Scouring In An Alkaline Lye ; Afterwards Natives Usually Dung ...

Blinji Pat Beng
Bli:nji Pat. Beng. Corchorus Olitorius. Blyth, Edward, For Many Years Curator Of The Museum Of The Bengal Asiatic Society, The Ablest Zoologist Who Has Over Resided In India; Author Of Numerous Learned Articles On The Main. Orals, Birds, Fishes, And Reptiles Of Eastern And Southern Asia, Mostly In The 111. ...

Blistering Beetles
Blistering Beetles Of India, Pan-man, Chin., Consist Of Several Species Of Mylabris. About 180 Lbs. Forwarded By Dr. Birdwood To Test The Market Value In England, Were Sold There At 5s. 8d. Per Lb. Several Kinds Of Beetles, When Applied To The Skin, Cause Great Irritation, Inflammation, And Blistering. These ...

Blood Ar 41i
Blood. Ar 41i. Thyak, 1 Nora. 'ptak,, . . Wi , Mae. . . . . I Kbun , Pram. L'itu, ..... If Th.% Aaji. Adi, Karl I /cala*, . . . . . . Niriti, Tan. Vi. . . . I.struna. Itattaniu; Itattarn, Blood For Blood, The Vendetta Of ...

Bo Tree
Bo-tree, Anar.o-slxmr, Grows All Over India. One Of These Is To Be Found Within The Precincts Of Every Buddhist Temple In Ceylon, And It Is Frequently Met With In Deserted Localities, Or Near The Sites Of Ancient Villages, And There The Occurrence Of A Solitary Bo Tree, With Its Circular ...

Boairan
Boairan City, In Lat. 18° 55' 5' N., And Long. 75° 53' 55^ E., Is Situated On An Island Of That Name, With All Area Of 18.22 Square Miles, And Gives Its Name To A Presidency Under The Rule Of A Governor And Council ; Also To The Army Which ...

Boats
Boats And Ships, The Fr*. And Karib Of The Arabs; The Markal, Kayik, Sandal, Nao, Jahaz, And Kishti Of India. The Difference As To Size Between The Boat And The Ship, So Marked In Europe, Is Less Observable Amongst The Communities Of Eastern And Southern Asia ; And The Kishti ...

Boehmeria Frutescens
Boehmeria Frutescens. Munk Pooah Of The Parbuttiah. I Yenki, . . . Limboo. Kienki, . . . Lepcha. Poee Of Gaehwal, Kumaon. This Plant Grows Wild, To A Height Of 6 Or 8 Feet, In The Mountain Valleys Of Eastern Nepal And Sikkim, And In The Hills Near The Terai, ...

Boiira
Boiira, Many Of The If Ahomedan Shopkeepers On All The Western Aide Of India, And As Far East As Secunderabad And Bellary, Are Bohra, And They Aro In Many Parts Of Central India And The N.w. Provinces; In The Rajput States, On The North-western Coast Of Peninsular India, And Are ...

Boka T Hind
Boka T. Hind. Asphodelus Fistulosus. Bokenakoo. Hind. Zapania Nodiflora. Bokhara, A Khanate In Turkestan, Of Small Extent, Surrounded By A Desert. . It -lies Between The Parallels Of Lat. N., And Long. E. It Is An Open Champagne Country Of Unequal Fertility, And Intersected By The Amu Or Oxus On ...

Bolan
Bolan, A Pass In Saharawan In Baluchistan, 64 Miles Long, Leading Through The Hala Mts. From Kutchi To Dasht-i-be-daulat. It Is A Succession Of Valleys, Bounded By Mountains. The Road Is Good Over The Bed Of The Torrent, From Which Large Stones Can Be Removed. It Is Better Adapted For ...

Bolbophyllum
Bolbophyllum, A Genus Of Plants Belong Ing To The Natural Order Orchiacem. B. Auricomum, Care3ranum, Flexuosum, Fuscescens, Jenkensonii, Serpens, And Suuipia, Occur In Nepal, The Khassya Hills, Burma, And Tenasserim. The Most Highly Valued Of The Orchid Order Among The Burmese And Karens Is A Sweet - Scented Bolbophyllum, Which ...

Bolwan
Bolwan, Amongst The Mabrattas, The Cere Mony Of Conducting A Bride To Her Husband's House; Also Dismissal Of The Bridegroom's Friends And Attendants. Also, The Ceremony Of Propitiat Ing Tho Illiuta Or Spirits Of Deceased Persons (pestilence) Who Have Entered A Village, Inducing Them To Leave The Village, And Conducting ...

Bombay Work
Bombay Work. The Inlaid Work Of Ivory, White And Dyed, Of Ebony Or Other Coloured Woods, For Which Bombay Has Long Been Famous, Is Said To Have Been Introduced From The Panjab, And Is Also Familiarly Known As Multan Work. The Art Dates From A Remote Period, And Paper-cutters, Work-boxes, ...

Bombycina
Bombycina, A Group Of Lepidopterous Insects, Which, In Their Metamorphosis, Construct A Cover Ing Or Case, Generally Called A Cocoon. Each Tribe Of The Bombyces Produces A Cocoon Of A Peculiar Form. They Are Said To Spin Or Weave Their Cocoon, And Are Usually Styled Silk-moths. The Valuable Product Of ...

Book
Book. 1 Kitab ; Kutub, . Arab. Ruathatam, Pustak Choptb, . . . Gv.i. Algal, . . . Tam. Pal, . . . . Mann. Puathakalu, . • Tel Tulisab ; Natal, Malay. The Material Of Which European Books Are Now Made Is Paper. But The Peoples Of South-eastern Asia ...

Bor Abor
Bor-.abor, A Race Dwelling On The North Of The Abor, Occupying The Mountains On The North Of The Brahmaputra River, In Lat. 28° N. And Long. 95° E., To The West Of The Dihong River. Bor And Abor Are Assamese Names For The People Who Call Themselves Padam. Bor Means ...

Borassus Flabelliformis
Borassus Flabelliformis. Linn. Lontarus Domestica, Bumph. Dom, Tad, . Arab. Pena, Am-pana, Maleal, Tal-gach'h, . . I3eng. Tale, . . . Sansk. Palmyra Brab Tree, Eng. Panam Maram, . . Tail Tar Ka Jhar, . . Hind. Tatti, Penti-tati, . Tel. Rontal, . . Jav. Karata-lamu, . „ Lontar, . ...

Borax
Borax, Bi-borate Of Soda, Buru9, Tuukar, . Arab. Pijer, . . Jaw., Afstsr. Kuddia-khar, . . Bliss. Sod Biboras, . . Lat. Pung-sha,pang-sha, Chin. Patteri, . . . Malay. Yueh-shih, Pwan-sha, „ Chaularaya, . Nr.r. Irwang P'ung-sha, Tunkar, . . . Rms. Boras, . . . Put. Tunkana, . . ...

Bore Or
Bore Or Tidal Wave. The Dee Loll, . . Bum. Bana, . . . Malay. Eagre, . . . . Chin. Bar, Pers. Ball, Bora, . . . Hind. The Bore Occurs In Southern And Eastern Asia On Several Rivers, In The Gulf Of Cambay, The Ganges, The Irawadi, And ...

Borer Eng
Borer. Eng. A Name Given To The Larva Of Coleopterous Beetles Which Injure Coffee Trees, Though The Casuarina And The Cinchona Are Alit() At. Tacked By Insects Which Have Not Been Deternined. There Are Two, The White And Red Borer, And The Former And Chief Of These Is The Xylotrechus ...

Borneo
Borneo, After New Holland, Is The Greatest Island On The Globe. If We Comprise The Numerous Archipelagoes By Which The Island Is Environed, This Group May Be Said To Occupy More Than Eleven Degrees Of Longitude And About Ten Of Latitude, Between Lat. 7° N. And 4° 20' S., And ...

Boro Or
Boro Or Bodo, A Race Chiefly Found In The Forest Tract, 15 To 20 Miles Broad, Between The Himalaya Mountains And The Plains. They Entered From Northern Assam Along The Southern Side Of The Brahmaputra To The Surma, And Along The Skirts Of The Himalaya As Far West As The ...

Boswellia Tiiurifera
Boswellia Tiiurifera. Coltb. B. Serrata, Slack. I C.odoriferum Hirs.,rumph. Canarhnhirsutum, Kundur; Zuchir,aa., Gut. Ganda Biroza, • Limn. Bistuj, . . . . „ Kuudurya, • . Sansk. Luban, . Duxii., I'ena. Lubanya, . . Svntac. Awul Kundnr, . Hum. I Parangt Sambrani, Tam. Dup-salai, Salai Lassa, „ Kunduru, . . ...

Botany
Botany Is The Ilm-i-nabatat Of The Persians. There Has Not Been Any Branch Of Natural Science, In Its Relation To The East Indies, So Devotedly Followed Out As Scientific And Economic Botany. Whether We Regard The Numbers Work Ing, The Personal Labour Undertaken, The Vast Sums Expended By Its Cultiyators, ...

Bovi Dye
Bovi Dye, A Family Of Mammals, Comprising The Sub-families Antilopinm, Caprinm, And Bovinve. The Antilopinm Have Been Enumerated Under Their Own Heading ; The Others Are As Under :— Sub-fern. Caprinm, Goats And Sheep. Nemorlicedus Bubalina, Jerdon. N. Proclivus, Hodgs. I Antilope Thar, Hodgs. Sarno, .hmst. I Thar, . . ...

Boxwood
Boxwood, Buxus Sempervirens, Wall. This Is A Valuable Wood Of A Yellowish Colour, Close Grained, Very Hard, And Heavy ; It Cut; Better Than Any Other Wood, And Is Susceptible Of A Very Fine Polish. It Was Highly Valued By The Ancients As A Material For Musical Instruments. It Is ...

Bozdar
Bozdar, A Border Tribe On The N.w. Frontier Of India, With About 2500 Fighting Men. They Dwell West Of The Derajat, In The Bills Opposite Mungrota, About 50 Miles North Of Dehra-ghazi Khan. After A Series Of Troublesome Inroads On The Plains, A Force Was Sent Against Them In March ...

Brahma
Brahma, A Word Supposed By Some To Be From The Sanskrit ' Or Brih,' To Increase. Brahma Occurs In A Hymn Of The Rig-veda, And, According To Dr. Haug, This Word Originally Meant The Strewing Of The Sacrificial Grass On The Spot Appointed For The Immolation. One Of The Earliest ...

Brahman
Brahman. This Is Written Brahmana, But The Final A Is Dropped In Conversation. It Is The Designation Of The Highest Of The Hindu Castes, Whom It Is Usual To Call The Priestly Class. Their Duties, According To Menu, Are—(1) Performances Of Holy Sacrifices; (2) Assisting At The Performance Of Such ...

Brahmanism
Brahmanism. Early Writers On The Religions Of India, Who Drew Their Information Exclusively From Sanskrit And Brabmanical Sources, Amongst Whom Was Klaproth, Inclined To Favour The Pre Tensions Of Brahmanism As More Ancient Than Buddhism ; But In Later Times The Translations Of The Pali Records And Other Sacred Volumes ...

Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra, A River In The N.e. Of India, Flowing Into The Bay Of Bengal. It Has Not Been Traced From Its Source, But Is Generally Believed To Rise Among Gigantic Glaciers To The 8.e. Of Lake Manaaarowara. An Old Lama Told Aids! Desgodius That In His Youth He Had Visited ...

Brahmo Samajh
Brahmo-samaj'h, A Small Reforming Hindu Sect, Who Regard Their Views As A Pure Theism, Recog Nise The Absolute Unity And Spirituality Of God, The Abolition Of Caste, And The Elevation And Instruction Of Woman. During A Very Few Years, Brabmoism Ran Through Three Different Stages. In The First It Had ...

Brahui
Brahui, The Dominant Race In Baluchistan. Their Tribes, Above 70 In Number, Are Nomades, Residing In One Part Of The Country In Summer, Mi Grating To Another For The Winter Season, And Con Stantly Shifting For Pasturage. The Baluchi Has A Tall Figure, Long Visage, And Raised Features. The Brehm ...

Braiimadica
Braiimadica, Supposed By Hindus In Their Mythology To Be The First Created Beings ; But In Their Cosmogonies Their Origin And Names Are Variously Explained. It Is Said, In The Institutes Of Menu (chap. I. 32), That The Almighty Power, Having Divided His Own Substance, Became Male And Female, And ...

Brasiletto Wood
Brasiletto Wood, Caisalpinia Sappan. Brass. Hwang T'ung, . . Chin. Orichalcum, Aurichal Missing, Messing; Gil- Cum, Lay. Koper, Geelkoper, Dup. Kuningan, Loyang, Tam Cuivre Jaune, Laiton, Fa. Bap:inning, . Malay. Messing, . . . Ge& Selenoi-mjed, . . Rue. Behest, . . . . Heb. Laton, Azofar, . . Sr. ...

Brassica
Brassica. Linn. A Genus Of Cruciferous Plants, Containing Several Very Important Alimen Tary Species. Brassies Campestris, Linn., Sarson, Hind. This Has Been Supposed To Be The Source Of The Swedish Turnip ; It Furnishes The Colza Oil Of Europe. It Is Grown As A Cold-weather Crop In The Plains Of ...

Brazilian Elemi
Brazilian Elemi, Also Accouchi Balsam, A Resin Obtained From The Icica Heterophylla. Brazil Wood, Queen's Wood. Brasilienhout, . . Dcv. Pao Brazil, Pao De Bois Do Bresil, . . Fr. Rainha, . . . Port. Iirasilien-holz, . . Ger. Madera Del Bresil, . . Sr. Leg-no Del Email; Ir. This ...

Bri Hind
Bri. Hind., Of Kulu. Desmodiurn, Sp. Briall Hind. Colebrookia Oppositifolia. Brick. • ' Karrrad, . . . . Ar. Bata, ..... Malay. Brique, Fa Ladrillo, . . . . Sp. Ziegelstein, . . . Ger. Shengal, Shengkallu, Tam. Int, . . . Gut., Hind. Itika-rai, . . Tel. Mattone, . ...

Brick Tea
Brick Tea, Tung-k'au, Cunt, Is Tea Com Pressed Into A Solid Form. This Article, And The Khata, Or 'scarf Of Felicity,' Are Great Articles Of Trade Between China And Tibet, A Prodigious Quantity Of These Goods Is Exported Annually From The Provinces Of Kan-su And Sech-u'en. In Ya-tcheon Or Ya-tzon, ...

Bridge
Bridge. Pont, Fe. Bashi, . . . . Jap. Brueke, Steg, . . Gee. Pul, F001, Hind., Pers. Ponti, . . . . . It. Puente, Sp Bridges In The S.e. Of Asia Are Built Of Stone, Brick, Wood, Iron, Rope, Bamboos, Canes, And Twigs. Hindu And Mahomedan Rulers In ...

Britain
Britain. The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland Is A Dominion In The Extreme West Of Europe, Which Now Sways The Destinies Of British India, And Has Many Colonies. It Is Ruled Over By A Sovereign, With Responsible Ministers, And Two Houses Of Parliament, Viz. The House Of Commons ...

Britisii India
Britisii India Is A Name Which Is Applied To A Great Collection Of Different Races, With Different Religions And Different Forms Of Government. Its People, In Manners And Habits, Are As Diverse As Their Climates, Or As The Plains And The Mountains, Fruitful Valleys And Savage Jungles, That They Occupy. ...