Niu•nal-yu; Su-yu, Clitzr. Manik sapi ; Man timer, . . . . . DAN. tega MA L.
Doter, D UT. Maslo, Pot,.
13eurre, . . . . Fa. Manteiga, . . PORT.
Karra ; Masks ; Masai° korowe, . Bus.
Mackan, . . . HIND. Manteca, . . . Sr.
Burro ; Butiro,. . IT. Venue, . . , TAM.
Makhan, . . • . Mum Ma-sz-ko•u, . TARTAR. Butyrum, . . . LAT. Venna , TEL.
Butter is one of the components of milk, the others being curd or casein, a kind of sugar, and certain salts. The lighter matters suspended in milk, when it is allowed to stand, separate in the form of cream, which can be further separated, by churning, into butter and butter milk. The yield of cream is increased by dropping into the milk a small piece of zinc. Butter is naturally of a yellow colour, which is deepened when the cows feed in rich pastures, but it is often artificially heightened by arnotto and safflower. Karra, or fresh butter, is seldom used by the natives of India. It is generally kept till it turns rancid, -and then clarified by repeated boiling. This is called roughan in Persia, and ghi in India. The ordi nary drink of the Tartars is kumys, a spirit made of mares' milk. They pour the milk into a large leathern vessel, and, when they have got a con siderable quantity, beat it till it begins to ferment like new wine. When it becomes quite sour,
they beat it again violently, and then draw off the buttery part. The fermented whey makes a. brisk sort of liquor, with an agreeable almond flavour, very intoxicating to those not much accustomed to it. The Tartars also make from goats' milk a kind of butter, which they boil and keep for winter use in goats' skins, and though they put no salt in it, it never spoils. It is seemingly ghi. After they have taken off the butter, they boil the curd again to make cheese, which they dry in the sun, and which is as hard as iron. These cheeses they put into sacks for the winter store, and when the supply of milk becomes scanty, they put this hard, sour curd into a leathern vessel, pour hot water upon it, and beat it till it liquefies ; and with this acid drink they have to content themselves during the time of year so severely felt by pastoral nations. The Tartars live chiefly on their flocks and the produce of the chase. In China the milk of every domesticated animal has been employed for making cream and butter. The milk from the wild cow is said to be the best. Ghi, or clarified butter, is called T'i-hu.—Smith, 45; Huc's Christianity, i. p. 209 • Toml.; M'Cull.