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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 1

Broach
Broach, Marti* Or Baroach, A Populous , Commercial Town On The Right Bank Of The Ner Badda, 27 Miles In Direct Distance From The Bar. The Nerbadda Is Here Two Miles Broad, And Boats Of 50 Tons Come Up The Channel. It Gives Its Name To N District Lying Between ...

Brother Making
Brother - Making. With The Ancient Greeks, Two Persons Would Vow To Each Other Per Manent Hospitality And Protection For Themselves And Their Descendants,—the Greek Corer. Itis The German Gast-freund. This Is Practised Amongst The Bedouins, Who Take An Oath Before One Or Two Witnesses. Amongst The Rajput Races Of ...

Broussonetia Papyrifera
Broussonetia Papyrifera. Vent. Moms Papyrifera, Linn. I Papyrus Japonica, Lanz. Mahlaing, . . . Bum. Paper Mulberry, . Eng. Killia, . . . Celebes. Gags, . . . Jay. Che, Chin. This Is A Shrub Or Small Tree, With Soft, Brittle, Woolly Branches, And Large Hairy Rough Leaves, Either Heart-shaped ...

Buc Hana N I
Buc Hana N I A Latifolia. Roxb. Chirongia Sapida, Bud+. ? Spondias Elliptica, Piyala? . . . Beng. Char, Dhan, Panj, Maur. Thit-sai? Len-lwon, Bums. Chara, . . . Sansk. Lumbo, . . . . „ Aima, Tam. Noas Kool, Nuskul, Can. Morxda, Mowda, , Pia-sal, . . . . ...

Buckum
Buckum. Him). Pterocarpus Santalinus. Buckwheat, Fagopyrum, Sp. Phalan, . . . Chenab. Trio, Rjao, . . Ladakh. Darau, . . Bapu Drawodo, . Panj. Kiau-meh, . . . Chin. Tatarca, Gryka, . Pol. Suh„ . . . „ Obal, Phapara, . . Ravi. Die Sarraain, Bld Noir, Fa. Katu, Katu ...

Buddha
Buddha. This Title Is Usually Employed To Designate Theeminent Religious Teacher, From Whose Doctrines Have Sprung Up The Forms Of The Buddh Ist Religion Which Are Found Prevailing In Ceylon, Nepal, Tibet, Tartary, Mongolia, Burma, Siam, Anam, Cambodia, China, Japan, Formosa, And Corea. Its Votaries, It Is Supposed, Outnumber Those ...

Buddhism
Buddhism Is A Religion Which Had Its Origin In The Teaching Of Sakya Sinha. In The Year 1881, The Population Of The World Was Estimated At 1,500,000,000, Of Whom 470,000,000 Were Sup Posed To Be Buddhists. Some Circumstances, Of Which We Are Uninformed, Must Have Prepared These Regions For The ...

Buddhist Architectural Remains
Buddhist Architectural Remains Are The Only Vestiges Of 'the Prevalence In British India Of The Doctrines Taught By Sakya Sinha And His Disciples, But They Afford Valuable Illustrations Of The Alterations Introduced Into That Great Teacher's Doctrines. It Is Known That The Final Disappearance Of Buddhism From Continental And Peninsular ...

Budh
Budh, An Ancestor Of A Branch Of The Great Hindu People Of A Time Prior To Authentic History. He Is Traced By Them Up To Brahma, From Whom He Descends Through Atri, Samudra, Chandra, Or Soma, And Vrihashpati. Budh Is Said To Have Married Ha, Daughter Of Ikshwaku ; And ...

Buffalo
Buffalo. Bubalus Buffelus, Mum. I Bos Bubalus, Briss. Bhains (male), . Hind. Karbo ; Karbou, Malay. Mhains (female), „ I Moonding, . . Sundan. The Buffalo Inhabits Tibet, But Is Domesticated In India, The Indian Archipelago, And Southern Europe. It Is The Only Indigenous Ruminant Of Ceylon. They Are Frequently ...

Bufonia
Bufonia, A Section Of The 2d Sub-class Of Reptiles, Batrachia, And Order Batrachia Salienta. The Section Bufonia Includes The Families Rhino Dermatidee And Bufonidie. Bufo Scabra, The Bengal And Java Toad, Abounds In The Marshes In The Lachen Valley, Adjoining Tibet. This Is A Remarkable Instance Of Wide Geographical Distri ...

Bugis Or
Bugis Or Bugi, A Bold, Self-reliant, Maritime People Of Celebes, Of Which They Occupy The Northern Part, And Are Known, In Consequence, As Macassar Men. The Bugis, Originally From The Same Stock As The Malay, Are Superior To All Other Natives Of The Archipelago In Their Spirit Of Adventure. They ...

Building Materials
Building Materials. In The Peninsula Of India, All The Most Ancient Buildings Are Of Stone, While The Edifices Of The Past Five Hundred Years, Comprising Some Of The Most Stupendous Piles, Are Of Brick. The Great Religious Institutions Of Sri Sailam In Cuddapah, At Conjeveram, Chellambram, Srirangam, The Temples At ...

Bukharia
Bukharia, Also Called Little Bukharia, Also Eastern Turkestan, Bounded On The North By Mongolia, On The East By The Shami Or Kobi Desert, On The West By Kokhand And Badakhshan, And On The South By The Wing Lung Or Kora Koram Range Of Hills, Which Separates Little Bukharia From Little ...

Bul Dan
Bul-dan. Amongst The Ancient Hindus, The Sacrifice Of A Bull To Balnath, The Lord Bal, The Sun. Balnath Was The Deity Worshipped By The Saura Races In Gujerat, And Was Identical With The Syrian Bal. That Ancient Sacrifice Has Long Ceased. Four Altars Were Erected For Offering The Flesh To ...

Bulbul
Bulbul. Peus. A Term Employed Among The Various Mahomedan Nations Of Southern Asia, To Designate Birds Belonging To Several Generic Divisions Of A Natural Family. The Persian Bulbul Is A Species Of True Nightingale ; It Is The Luscinia Major (or Sylvia Philomela Of Tenuninek), And Is Known As The ...

Bundi
Bundi, A Tributary State In Rajpntana, Lying Between Lat. 24° 58' And 55' N., And Long. 75 23' And 30' E. Population In 1875 Was 224,000, Paying A Tribute Of One Lakh Of Rupees. The Ruling Family Belong To The Hare Tribe Of Rajputs. Omeda Raja Gave Most Efficient Assistance ...

Bundlla
Bundlla, A Tribe Who Claim To Be Rajputs. They Give A Name To The Province Of Bundelkhand (corruptly Bundelcund). They Are Descended From The Garliwars Of Kantit And Khairagarh, And First Settled In Bundelkhand In The 13th Or 14th Century. There Are Few Genuine Bundelas In The British Portion Of ...

Bunnu
Bunnu, A District In The Derajat Division Of The Panjab, Situated S.w. Of The Kala Or Salt Range, With Its Centre In Lat. 22° 40' N., And Long. 70° 30' E. Its Population, 288,000. The Bunnu Valley Is South Of And Is Accessible By The Siirduk And The Koonh-i-gao Passes. ...

Burabur
Burabur Hills Are Isolated Rocks Of Sienitic Granite Rising Abruptly From The Plain About 15 Miles North Of The City Of Gaya, By The Left Bank Of The Phulgo Or Mahanadi. The Highest Is Called Berabur, Also Sidheswar, From A Temple To Mahadeva That Once Crowned Its Heights. The Next ...

Burial Customs
Burial Customs. In The South And East Of Asia, The Modes Of Disposing Of Their Dead Are Almost As Varied As Are The Races Themselves. It Has Been Remarked That The Mode Of Disposing Of The Dead Has From The Earliest Times Been Symbolo Matic Of The Opinions As To ...

Burma
Burma, As Now Known To Europe, Was For Merly The Site Of Four Kingdoms, Viz. Arakan, Tha-htun, Martaban, And Pegu. It Is Still Subject To Two Dominions, Being Partly A British Province And Partly Under A Burmese Ruler, The Two Portions Being Designated Respectively British Burma And Independent Burma. British ...

Burnes
Burnes. Three Brothers Of This Name Served Together In India. Sir Alexander Burnes Wrote Travels In Bokhara And History Of Cabul, At Which Place, Along With Their Youngest Brother Charles, He Fell On The 2d November 1841. They Were Natives Of Montrose In Scotland, Sons Of James Burnes, Provost Of ...

Bustar
Bustar, A District And Dependency In Central India, Surrounded By The Teling In The South, Khond And Mari Gond On The East, And Hindus To The North. It Lies Westward Of The State Of Jey Pore, And Has The Godavery For Its Southern Boundary. In Length It Is About 170 ...

Bustard
Bustard. European And Indian Bustard. Beet-rniaka, . Can., Tel. Jangli Kaboot, . . Hum. Ostarde, Outarde, Hont- Starda Commune, . . It. Arde, Bistarde, . Fr. Cowdun, Ahu-buru, Pers. Trapp, Trappe, Trap- Jars, 51 Gaps, . . . . Ger. Gustard, . . Scotch. Ackentrappe, . . „ Abu•tarda Sp ...

Butea Frondosa
' Butea Frondosa. Roxb. Bastard Teak. Erythrina Monosperma, Lam. Pulasa ; Kinaka, . Beng. Chucbra Pla, . Panj. Pouk-pm ; Pouk- Kinsuka, . . . Sansk. Nway, . . . . Bumf. Kalu-kmla, . . Singii. Mootr, Ch'hiul, . Can. Porasa Maram, . Tam. Pulas, . . . . Eng. ...

Butter
Butter. Niu•nal-yu; Su-yu, Clitzr. Manik Sapi ; Man Timer, . . . . . Dan. Tega Ma L. Doter, D Ut. Maslo, Pot,. 13eurre, . . . . Fa. Manteiga, . . Port. Karra ; Masks ; Masai° Korowe, . Bus. Mackan, . . . Hind. Manteca, . . . ...

Butterfly Bums
Butterfly. . . . Bums. I'arwana, . . . Hind. Papillon, . . . Fn. Pedants, . . . . It. Sehmetterling, . . Gila. Mariposa, . . . . Se. Butterflies Are Very Numerous In The S. And E. Of Asia, And Many Of Them Very Beautiful. They Are ...

Byssus
Byssus, A Long, Delicate, Lustrous, And Silky Fasciculus Of Filaments, By Which Some Of The Conchiferous Molluscs, For Example The Mytilacea, Mussels, And Malleacea, Hammer Oysters, Are Moored To Rocks, Etc. It Is An Assemblage Of Muscular Fibres, Dried Up In One Part Of Their Extent, But Still Contractile And ...

Cachar
Cachar, A District In Assam, In The Upper Portion Of The Valley Of The Barak, Extending From Lat. 24° 13' To 25° 50' N., And From Long. 92° 26' To 93° 29' E. Its Area, 3750 Square Miles. Its Population In 1872 Was 205,027, In The Area Of 1285 Square ...

Cairn
Cairn. Gnaj, Hind. I Birah, . . . A Heap Of Stones Or Tumulus Piled Over The Resting - Place Of The Ancient Dead, In Different Parts Of S. India. Prior To The Buddhist Stupas Or Topes, This Seems To Have Been A Common Mode Of Covering The Dead ; ...

Cairo
Cairo, The Capital Of Egypt, In Lat. 30° 6' N., And Long. 31° 26 E., A Very Ancient City In The Valley Of The Nile, And Known To The People As Misr. After The Conquest Of Egypt By Cambyses (b.c. 525), The Babylonians Are Said To Have Founded New Babylon, ...

Cajanus Indicus
Cajanus Indicus. Spreng. Pigeon-pea. Of This There Are Two Varieties, Which Differ Only In The Colour Of The Vexillum. • Var. X, With Vexillum Of A Uniform Yellow Colour On Both Sides. Cajanus Flavus, .de Can. I Cytisus Cajan, Linn. Dhal, Arbar, . . Beng. Shakhull, . . . Pers: ...

Calan1us
Calan1us. This Genus Of Palm Trees Is In Digenous To Southern Asia, And Dr. Griffiths Enumerated 58 Species. They Abound In The Madras Territories, Along The Foot Of The Himalaya From Dehra Doon To Sylhet, In Assam, Chittagong, In The Malay Peninsula, Siam, Cochin-china, Su Matra, And In The Eastern ...

Calcareous Spar
Calcareous Spar. Cale-spar. Ying-ahwui-shih, . Chin.han-sbwui-shilt, . Chin. Peh-shwui-shih, I „ Safed Burma, . . Hind. The Varieties Of This Mineral Are Calc-spar, Ice Land Spar, Satin Spar, Chalk, Rock Milk, Calcareous Tufa, Stalactite, Stalagmite, Limestone, Oolite, Piso Lite, Argentine, Fontainebleau Limestone, White And Clouded Marbles, Statuary Marble, Compact Limestone, ...

Calcutta
Calcutta, In Lat. 22° 34' 2" N., Long. 23' 59" E., At The Cistern Of The Barometer At The Surveyor-general's Office, Is 18 Feet (g. T. S.) Above The Sea. It Is The Capital Of British India, Built, On The Left Or Eastern Bank Of The Iloogly River. It Is ...

Calendar
Calendar. Nations Have Adopted Different Divisions Of Time, From Which History Has Presented Difficulties And Contradictions. That Of The Chaldmans Was Seen By Callisthenes, The Favourite Of Alexander. It Commenced B.c. 2234. The Chinese Calendar Was Reformed Under The Han Dynasty, B.c. 1991. The Romans Called The First Day Of ...

Calico Printing
Calico Printing. This Art Was Common To The Egyptians And The Hindus, And Is Still Largely Practised By The Latter, With A Skill Which Produces Much To Be Admired, Even In The Midst Of The Productions Of The World, And After So Many Attempts Have Been Made To Improve This ...

Calicut
Calicut, A Seaport Town On The Malabar Coast, In Lat. 11° 15' 2" N., Long. 75° 15i' E., And Six Miles N. Of Beypur. It Is Not Visible From The Ocean, The Only Building To Be Seen Being A Tall White Lighthouse. Thick Groves Of Cocoanut Trees Line The Shore, ...

Calophyllum
Calophyllum (from The Greek Kalos, Beautiful, And Phullon, A Leaf), A Genus Of Plants To The Natural Order Garciniacefe. C. Angustifolium, Inophyllum, And Tacanthaca, Grow In S.e. Asia ; But In Southern India Several Species Have Not As Yet Been Determined. They Furnish Useful Timber,—c. Angustifolium Yielding One Of The ...

Calotropis Gigantea
Calotropis Gigantea. Brown. Var, A. Alba Or White. I Var. B. Lilicina Or Blue. A. White Variety. Asclepias Gigantea, Linn. Ashur, . . . . Arab. Yerika, Erika, . Maleal. Shwet Akund, . . Beng. Belerika (white), . „ Rowi, . . . . Bombay. Arka, Mandara, . Same. Mai-oh, ...

Cambay
Cambay, In Long. 72° 51' E., And Lat. 22° 5' N., In Gujerat, Is At The Bead Of The Bay Which Bears Its Name, On The Estuary • Of The Mahi, Between The Mouths Of The Sabarmati On The West, And The Mahi On The East. It Is Said To ...

Cambessedea Oppositifolia Iv A
Cambessedea Oppositifolia. Iv. A. Mangifera Oppositifolia, Roxb. ' This Indigenous Tree Of Tenasserim Has A Reddish Coloured, Hard, Elose-grained Wood, Said To Be Durable. It Produces A Fruit Much Like A Plum. There Are Two Varieties, One Bearing An Intensely Sour Fruit, And The Other One As Insipidly Sweet.— Mason ...

Camel
Camel. Jamal, Gamal, . . Arab. Camello, . . . It., Sr. Chameau, . . . Fr. Camelus, . . . Lat. Kameel, . . . Ger. Unta , Malay. Karnelos, . . . Gr. Ottagam, . . Tam. Oont, Hind. Loti-pitta, Wonte, Tel. Camels Are Mentioned In 1 Kings ...

Camoens
Camoens. Luis De Camoens, A Native Of Por Tugal, Was Born At Lisbon About A.d. 1524, And Educated At The University Of Coimbra, But, Fall Ing In Love With Catharina De Atayade, He Was Banished From Court. He Joined The Army In Vading Morocco As A Soldier, Where He Was ...

Camphor
Camphor. Kafur, Ar., Hind., Pers. Kapur Japun, . . . Jap. Pa-yok, Also Parouk, Ber. Camphors, . . . . Lat. Kapur Bali, . . Chin. Kapur Barns, . . Malay. Kamfer, . . . Hut. Alcanfor, . . Port., Sp. Camphre, . . . Fr. Kamfora , Rus Kampfer, ...

Camphora
Camphora, A Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Lauraceas, Of Which Three Species, C. Glanduli F Era, C. Officinarum, And C. Porrecta Occur In The South And East Of Asia. Camphora Glandulifera, Nees, Is The Laurus Glandulifera, Wall. It Is A Tree Of The Nepal Mountains, With Small Yellowish-green Odoriferous ...

Can
. . Can. I Sora-panji-g,adur, . Tel. Dadde-weddeo, . Singh. I Clalat-yelka. Of Waddar. The Golundi, One Of The Muricla3, Is Found In Southern India And Ceylon. The Tail Is Naked And Scal3r, Somewhat Villose. Tho C,olour Is An Olive -brown Above. It Lives Entirely In Tho Jungle, Choosing Its ...

Can Pau
Pau, Can. Bru Pottu, . . Tam. Slum, Bitl-manu . . Simon, Sit Sal, . Iruguilu Cl*itu, This Is A Commercial Term For Several Dark Coloured Timbers, And Every Locality Has A Wood Which Is Known By This Name. The Timber Known In Britain As East Indian Blackwocxl La From ...

Canals
Canals For Irrigation Are Of The Greatest Im Portance In All The Tropical Countries Liable To The Calamities Resulting From Excessive Droughts. The Great Canal Of The World Is That Of Suez, Connecting The Red Sea With The Mediterranean, And Separating Africa From Asia. It Was Com Menced 25th April ...

Canara
Canara, A Maritime Province On The Western Coast Of The Peninsula Of India, With An Area Of 7800 Square Miles. It Is Arranged By The British Into Two Revenue Districts, North Canara Or Collectorate Of Honore, And South Canara As Far South As The Chundragherry River, And From That River ...

Canarese Or
Canarese Or Karnataka Is An Ancient Classical And A Modern Dialect, The Former Con Taining Different Inflexional Terminations. Bala Kannada, Is An Ancient Written Character Formerly Used By The Canarese People In Writing. Canarese Is A Language In The Centre Of The Indian Peninsula, Spoken By About Nine Millions Of ...

Canarium Strictum
Canarium Strictum. Roxb. Dammara Nigra Legitima, Bumph. Manda-dup, . . Beng. Mall Mara, . . Maleal. Gugal, Dup,. . . „ Kongilam Maram, . Tam. Black Dammer Tree, Eng. Karapa Kongilamu, „ Canari, . . . Maleal. This Very Beautiful, Large Tree Is Most Abundant In All The Moist Ghat ...

Candaiiar
Candaiiar, A Town In Afghanistan, In Long. 65° 28' E., And Lat. 31° 37' N., 3484 Feet Above The Sea. It Is The Khenta Of The Vendidad. Accord Ing To Elphinstone (caubul, P. 425), There Has Been A City Here Since The Time Of Alexander, And The Ancient City Stood ...

Canes Or
Canes Or Rattans. Canne, Roseau, . . Fa. ' Bed, . . Hind., Pers. Baton, Ratan, . . . „ Canso, . . . . Sp. Rohrt, Ger. Junco De Indies, . „ Nathur, . . Grj. Perambugal, . . Tail Rotan, . . Malay. Bettamulu, . . . Tel ...

Canis Familiaris
Canis Familiaris. Linn. Var. Indica. The Pariah, Polygar, And Brinjara Dogs, And Tibetan Mastiff. The Brinjara Dog Is A Large, Powerful Animal, In Shape And With Limbs Some What Resembling The Persian Greyhound, Only Much More Powerful. The Breed Seems, How Ever, To Be Disappearing From Amongst The Brin Jara ...