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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 1

China
China, The Empire In The Centre And East Of Continental Asia, Known To Europe By This Name, Is Called By The Western Mongols, Cathay ; By The Manchu Tartars It Is Called Nikan Kourn ; And By The Chinese Tehoung-koue, The Last Term Meaning The Central Kingdom (duhaldo, Mist. Of ...

Chinese Feet
Chinese Feet. The Binding Of The Feet Is Not Begun Till The Child Has Learned To Walk And Do Various Things. The Bandages Are Specially Manu Factured, And Are About Two Inches Wide And Two Yards Long For The First Year, Five Yards Long For Subsequent Years. The End Of ...

Chinese Tartary
Chinese Tartary, Also Called Chinese Turkestan, Is A Great Depressed Valley, Shut In By Mountains Of Great Height On Three Sides, And On The East Are Barren Sands, Which Merge Imperceptibly Into The Great Desert Of Gobi. It Comprised Two Great Divisions, Viz. Zungar Or Mughholistan, And Kashgar Or Eastern ...

Chingleput
Chingleput, A Town 36 Miles S. Of Madras. It Gives Its Name To A Revenue Division Which Lies Between Parallels Of 13' And 13° 54' N. Lat., And Wraps Round Madras. The Several Races Of Maho Medans Number 23,192, And Hindus 899,686, Of The Valala, Vania, Kamalar, Kaikalar Sections, And ...

Chiretta Hind
Chiretta. Hind. Creyat Root. Kussub-uz-zerireh, Arab. Create, . . . . Fr. Kalapnath, . . . Beng. Creyatta, Kriatt, Hind. Kala-megh, Maha Tita, „ Kairata, . . Sansk. Toa-kha-kyi, . . Burn. Atadi, . . . . Singh. Kiriat, Can. Sherait-kuchi, . . Tam. Kreat, . . . Doer. Nela ...

Chittagong Ii Ill Tracts
Chittagong Ii Ill Tracts Are A Portion O; The Great Chain Of Mountains Running From Aasair Southwards To Cape Negrais, And The Blue 31onir Tains, On The Frontier Of Chittagong, Rise 800( Feet Above The Sea. Several Rivers Rise In These Mountains, Amongst Others The Karsiafuli, Which Flows Into The ...

Chittore Or
Chittore Or Chetur, A Town In Rajputana, In The Kingdom Of Mewar. Its Dynasty Are Rajput, And Claim To Be Descended From Lob, The Eldest Son Of Rama, Of The Solar Dynasty. They Say That They Were First Ruling At Balabhipura, A City In The Gulf Of Cambay, But Their ...

Chloroxylon Swietenia
Chloroxylon Swietenia. Roxb. Swietenia Chloroxylon, Ron.,. Satin-wood, . . . Eso. Porasham, . . . Tail Bhireo,. . . . Mahe. Kodawah Porasham, „ Mal Burute, Or Flowered Billuda Tel. Satin; Buruta, Singh. Emu Chettu, . „ Mududa, . . . Mu. I Bilugu? Uria. Vum-maai, . . . „ ...

Chohan Or
Chohan Or Chahuman, One Of The Four Agnicula Tribes, Which Formed A. Dynasty That Reigned At Ajmir And Dehli, And Afterwards At Kotah And Bondi. Ajipala, One Of This Dynasty, Founded Ajmir In A.d. 145; And It Was Afterwards Lost To The Mahomedans By Dola Rai. Harihara Rai Defeated Sabaktagin. ...

Chota Nagpore
Chota Nagpore, Properly Chutia Nagpur, Is The Country On The Eastern Part Of The Extensive Plateau Of Central India, On Which The Koel, The Subunreka, The Damuda, And Other Rivers Have Their Sources. It Extends Into Sirguja, And Forms. What Is Called The Upar - Ghat ' Or Highland Of ...

Chumbul
Chumbul, A Tributary To The Jumna. It Rises In Malwa In Lat. 22° 26', And Long. 75° 45', 8 Or 9 Miles S.w. Front Mhow, Which Is 2019 Feet Above The Sea. It Rises On The Cluster Called Janapava. Itruns North 105 Miles, N.1v. 6 Miles, S.e. 10 Miles, N.e. ...

Chunam
Chunam. Chunna; Chunnam, Hind. I Sunamu; Choonnoo, Tel. Chunambu,. . . Tail I Chuna Or Chun= Is A Term Applied To Quick Lime Made From Nodular Limestone, From Lime Stone Rock, From Marble, Or From Calcined Shells; Also Applied To Plaster And Mortar. The Chunam Plaster Of Madras, Long Famed ...

Chutka Beng
Chutka. Beng. Bauhinia Acuminata. • Chutnee Is A Warm Condiment Used In Every Family Of India, Either Prepared Fresh Daily From Ripe Vegetables, Or Preserved. The Following Is A Recipe For The Dehli Or Celestial Ehutnee :— Take Of Green Mangoes, Raisins, Mustard-seed, Salt, Green Singer, And Garlic, Each One ...

Chyavana
Chyavana; Iii•hindu Mythology, Is The So Of Bhriga,, The'son Of Brahma, By His Wifef A ..rakshasa; Or/ Fiend,--'attempting To Carry O , Puloma, The Child Was 'prematurely. Bo'rit; Whenc His Nameoficim Chya,;,lo ,fall .from:,p ,upon ! Birth ;.,.his Splendour ,was ,such As , To Reduce. Th Insulter Of His Mother ...

Ciiandoo
Ciiandoo, The Extract Of Opium Which Is Employed In (01mi-smoking, Called By The Chinese Yen-kati And Shull-yen. The Opium, As Exported From Calcutta, Is In Boxes Containing Forty Balls, Each Of The Size Of A 32 Lb. Cannon Shot. These Balls Aro Enclosed In A Husk Of Compressed Poppy Leaves, ...

Ciiola
Ciiola, An Ancient Dynasty In The South Of The Peninsula Of India ; The Sorai Of Ptolemy. Their Several Capitals Were Arcot, Conjeveram, Then Wariur, Near Trichinopoly, Combaconum, Gongadaram, And Lastly Tanjore. At The Be Ginning Of The Christian Era They Seem To Have Been Ruling Over All The Countries ...

Ciironology
Ciironology. The Greater Periods Em Ployed In The Computation Of Time By The Iiindus, Though Founded On Astronomical Data, Aro Purely Mythological. A Complete Revolution Of The Nodes And Apsides, Which They Suppose To Be Per Formed In 4,320,000,000 Years, Forms A Kalpa Or Day Of Brahma. In This Are ...

Cinchona
Cinchona, A Genus Of Plants Of The Order Cinchonacem, Natives Of South America. Joseph De Jussieu, In His History Of Peru, Relates That In 1600 A Jesuit, Who Had A Fever At Malacotas, Was Cured By Peruvian Bark. In 1638 The Countess Anna Of Chinchon Was Suffering From Tertian Fever ...

Cinnabar
, Cinnabar. Zunjefer,. . . . Arab. I Guluga, . . . Malay. Shwui-yin, Tan-sha, Chin. Sodilengam, . . M.u.sat. Chu-sha, Shin-sha, „ Shangarf,. . . . Pers. Hung, . . . . . „ Inghulum, . . Sansk. Pak Shangbarf, . Du Ell. Shadilingam, . . Tam. 1 Hingda, ...

Circ Uma Mbulati On
Circ Uma Mbulati On. Touaf, . . . Arab. I Parikanna, . . . Dago', . . . Celtic. I Pradakshatis, . . Sansk. The Circumainbulation Of Sacred Places Has Ever Been Part Of The Ritual Of Worship Of .asiatic Nations. The 3fahomedan In Circumarnbulation, Touaf, Presents His Left Shoulder ...

Circar
Circar. In The Mahomedan Land Revenue System, A Circar Was A Subdivision Of A Subah. The N.w. Provinces Of India, Excluding The Saugor And Nerbadda Territories, Comprised No Cotnplete Subah, But Only Nortions Of The Four Subahs Of Agra, Allahabaa, Dehli, And Oudh. Each Subah Was Divided Into A Certain- ...

Circassia
Circassia Is 'the Cherkas Of Asiatics. It Is A Mountainous Country In The S.e. Corner Of Europe, On The Northern Face Of The Cauca.sus, Lying Between Lat. 41° 50' And 45" 20'n., And 37° And 47° 20' E., About 550 Miles Long And 75 Miles Broad; Area, 40,000 Square Miles. ...

Circumcision
Circumcision. 1 Khatna, . . . . Arab. Soontan, . . . . Hind Circoncision, . . . Fr. Circoncisione, . . . It Beschneidung, . . Ger. Circuncision, . . . Sp The Phcenicians Had This Rite In Common Witl The Egyptians And The Jews, Who Acknow Ledge Having ...

Cis Sutlej
Cis-sutlej, A Political Term Applied In British India To The Territory South Of The Sutlej, Occupied By Sikh Chiefs During The Last Years Of The Deldi Empire, And Now Including The British Districts Of Ambala, Ludhitum, Pirozpur, And Hissar, With The Native States Of Patiala, Faridkot, Maier Kotla, Chitraulit Raikot, ...

Cite Ta
Cite ;ta: Him% The Several Leopards And Panthers Of India Are So Named. The Word, Meaning Spotted, Is So Used• By The Natives Of India, But They Prefix Another Word To Indicate Tho Particular Animal Intended. Generally, By The Word Cheeta Is Meant The Fells Leopardus, Schreb. The F. Pardus ...

Citrullus Cucurbita
Citrullus Cucurbita.. Schrwd. Cucumis Citrullus, Serr. I Cucurbita Citrullus, Linn. Belikh-zichi,. . . Arab. Hinduaneh, . . . Pers. Tarmnj, Titoo Laoo, Beng. Tarbuzah, Turbuz, „ Turbuz Hind. Chaya Pula, . . Sansk. Pha-rai, . . . Borm. Kuttoo Wombi, . . „ 1vater Melon, . . Eno. Hindano ; ...

Citrus Aurantium
Citrus Aurantium. Linn. The Orange. C. Nobilis, :lour. Naranj, . . Arab., Pers. Simao, Jeruk Mani ,s Lieng Mau, • . . Btirm. Malay. Sum, 7en Dadra; Narranji, Maleal. Kan, Kwh, . . Chin. Swadu Naringa, . Same. Orangen, . . . Dut. Nagranga, Jambira„ Oranges, . . . . ...

Civet
Civet, Castoreum. Zabad, . . . . Arab. De-des, Jabat, . . Malay. Ashbutcbegan, . ;, Castoreo, . . . Port. .tavad Dit/ch. Babuwaja Struga, Rus. Eivergeil, . . Dtrr. Ghenda-malay-alu Civette, . . Fr. Beeyum, . . . Same. Zibetb, Bibergeil, Ger. Alg,alia, . . . Sp. Gond-badustar, . ...

Clay
Clay, Fireelay. Chomar, . . . . Ilan. Sangi-klalam, . Llixo. Gil ; Chikni Mitt', Firm Tannah, Whiterlay,malav. Clay Is A Compound, Or Perhaps Only A Mixture, Of The Two Earths, Alumina And Silica, With Water. Pipc-clay, Nihnam, Kliarra, Of A Greyish-white Colour, With An Earthy Fracture, And A Smooth, ...

Clematide
Clematid.e. The Name Is Derived From Clema, A Vine Branch, From The Climbing Properties Of The Family. The Tribe Is Acrid And Poisonous ; The Leaves And Fresh Stem, If Bruised And Applied To The Skin, Cause Vesication. Griffith Notices The Virgin's Bower In The Tenasseritu Provinces, With Simple Fleshy ...

Climate Of India
Climate Of India. The Hindu Races Familiar With The Tropical Countries In Which They Dwell, Use Water ' As The Term For Describing The Effects Of A Clitnato On Health. In This Sense It Is The Salubrity Of A Locality That Is Alluded To. Mahoinedans Of Asia. Treat Of Seven ...

Clothing
Clothing. The Tnaterials Used For Clothing, And The Forms Of Dress Of The Peoples Of The South And East Of Asia, Differ According To The Climate, The Pursuits, And The Customs Of The Races. Through A Thousand Years, Seemingly, The South-eastern Races Continue T,o Wear Clothing Similar To What Their ...

Cloves
Cloves. Clavue, Lat. Karnful, . . . . Arall Gious De Girofle, . . Fr. Buwah-luvung, . Bali. Cirofles, Lang-yen.hwen, . Bum Naglein, . . . . Ger. Gewuranelken, . „ Ting-tsze, Ki-eheh, „ Luvung, . . . Ting-hiang, . . . „ Long, . . . . . Bind. ...

Coal
Coal. Stinkull, . . . . Dan. Carvoes De Retire, . Port, Steenkoolen, . . Dcr. Carvoes De Terra, „ Steenkull, . . „ Ugolj, Kamenoe, 'tug. Charbon De Terre, . . Carbones Du Tierra, . Sp. Steinkoblen, . . Ger. „ Piedra, . „ Valaiti Kuela, . . 01l1. ...

Cobra
Cobra, The Ordinary Urda Name Of The Naga. Genus Of Venomous Colubritie Snakes Of The Family Elapidm. There Is Only, One Species, The Naga Tripudians, Which Has A Moderate Body, With Rather Short Tail. It Has A Small Or Moderate Eye, With A Round Pupil, A Poison Fang In Front ...

Coccus
Coccus, A Genus Of Insects Belonging To The Family Coccid, Of The Order Hemiptera. The Insects Belonging To This Family Live Upon Trees Or 'plants Of Various Kinds ; They Are Of Small Size, And In The Larva State Have The Appearance Of Oval Or Round Scales. They Are Closely ...

Cochin
Cochin, A Small Feudato4 State On The Western Side Of The Peninsula Orindia, With A Seaport Capital Of The Same Name, Lying' Between Lat. 9° 48' And 10° 50' N., And Long. 76° 5' And 76° 58' E. ; The Area, 1361 Square Miles, And Popu Lation In 1881, 600,278" ...

Cochin China
Cochin-china, The Name .given In Europe To A Country Occupied By The Annam People. The Derivation Of The European Name Is Obscure, But Kachao Is The Name _given Hy The Annam People To The Capital Of Tonquin ; And Cochin-china Is Known To The Malay Navigators As Kutchi. It Has ...

Cochineal
Cochineal. Ya-lan-mi, . . . Chin. ' Cochenilha, . . . Port. Conchinilje, . . . Dut. Konssenel, . . . Rea. Cochenille, . . , Fr. Cochinilla Grana, . Sp. Koschenilje, . . . Ger. I Cocbinil Puchi, . . Ta3i. Kermil,gmi.,11.1nd., Pers. Cochinil Purugu, . Tel. Cocchnglia, It ...

Cock
Cock, The Male Of The Domestic Fowl Of The Genus Gallus. One Species Of Gallus Is Found In The Wild State In The Malay Peninsula, Two In Sumatra, Two In Java, And One In The Philippine Islands. But No Bird Of The Genus In The Wild State Is Found In ...

Cock Up
Cock-up, The Begti Fish Of The Ganges. Cocoa. Ko-ko, Kwo-kau, Chin. I Kakao, Ger. Cacao, Fr I Como, . It., Port., Sp. Cocoa, Also Written Cacoa, Is The Nut Or Seed Of The Theobroma Cacao, A Plant Of The W. Indies And The Continent Of America. Lindley Mentions Also T. ...

Cocoanut
Cocoanut. Hu. . . . Aciiinese. Noce De Cacao, . . . Tr. Narikal, . . . Kalapas, . . . Malay. Cocos, . . . . Fr., Sr. Ten*, . Tail, Kotaos-baum, . . Gel Tcnkaia, . . . . Tel. Nare1, . . . . Hugo. I Narekadara, ...

Cocoanut Oil
Cocoanut Oil. Narel Ka Tel, . Hind. Kalambir, . . Malay. Minak Nur, . . Malay. Tengai Yenne, . . Tam. Minak Kalapa, . „ Tenkaia Nuna, . . Tel. The Kernel, Having Been Removed From The Shell And Dried, Is Subjected To Pressure In A Mill, And The Oil ...

Cocoanut Toddy
Cocoanut Toddy. Cocoanut Trees Of Vigorous Growth Send Forth Nine, Ten, And Even Twelve Clusters Of Buds Every Year. But Those On Which Little Care Has Been Bestowed, And Which Are Consequently Feeble, Produce Only Four Or Five Of These Tpathes, Called In Tamil ' Palal' The Sanar,' Or Toddy-drawer, ...

Cocos Nucifera
Cocos Nucifera.. Cocoanut Tree. _ _ The Cocoanut Palm Does Uot Seem To Have Been Known To The Ancients, Though It Is Said To Be Indigenous In The East, From Which They Received Ambassadors ; And Is Said By The Hindus To Have Been Brought By Viswamitra From Ceylon To ...

Coffea
Coffea, A Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Natural Order Cinchonacese. There Are Several Species, Viz. C. Arabie,a Of Arabia, From Which It Has Been Introduced Into Many Countries ; C. Bengalensis, The Bun-kaliwa Or Wild Coffee, Whin Grows In Assam, Nepal, And The Khassya Hills; C. Elliptica, Thwaites, A ...

Coffea Mauritiana
Coffea Mauritiana. Lam. C. Arabia+, 13., Willde. I O. Aylvestris, C. Myrtifolia, Boxb. I Cafe Marron, . . . A Plant Of The Mauritius, Bourbon.— Voigt. Coffee Berry. Boon, . . An., Bombay. Bun, Kalawa, Kapi, Vern. Kia-fi-eha, . . . Chin. Kafi, . . . „ Eleane, . . ...

Coffee Planting
Coffee Planting, As A Branch Of Agricul Tural Industry, Although Only Introduced Into India In Comparatively Recent Times, Has Attracted Many Persons. The Outlay. Has Been Great, But Both In Ceylon And Southern India The Losses Have Been Considerable, Often Ruinous. In Nether Lands India, Coffee Planting Has Been A ...

Coimbatore
Coimbatore, A Collectorate Of The Madras Presidency, In The South Of Tho Peninsula. Its Chief Town Of The Same Name Is In Lat. 10° 59' 41" N., And Long. 76° 59' 46" E., And Is 1350 Feet Above The Sea At The Palace. The District Occupies An Area Of 7432 ...

Coir
Coir Is The Fibre From The Rind Of The Cocoanut, And Is A Corruption Either From The Tamil Kayer, A Lope, Or The Maldive Kaubar, The Name Given To The Cords With Which The Inhabitants, According To Abul Fazl, Sewed Together The Planks Of Their Ships. It Is Largely Used ...

Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Colebrooke. 'henry Thomas,_ Was The First To Give.a Tolerable Sketch Of The Character And Contents' Of The Vedas In 1805 ; And In 1823 1827 He Expounded The Principles Of The Different Systhms Of Hindu Philosophy. His Father, Sir George. Colebrooker, Bart., Was For Many Years Chairman Of The E. ...

Colocasia An7iquorum
Colocasia An7'iquorum. Schott. Arum Colocasia, Linn. I A. Zgyptiacum, Bumph. There Are Five. Varieties Of This Plant,— Re. Goori Kuchoo, Beng. Ashoo Kuchoo, Beng. Shema Kalengu, . Tam. I Chcma, Chama Clumpa, Chema, Chamakura, Tel. I Tel. These Are Cultivated In Most Parts Of /ndia And Burma. Small Offshoots From ...

Colophonia
Colophonia Is In French, Bois De Colopbane. To This Geniis De Candolle Refers The Tree Produe Ing The Bois Tle Colophane Of The Island Of Mau Ritius, And Calls It C. Aturitittits. Colossoctinys Andis, A Huge Fos.sil Land Tortoise, Discovered By Dr. Falconer And Sir Proby Cautley In 1835 In ...

Colour
Colour. Couleur. . . . . Fr. Colore, Farbe, Ger. C0101, Sp Rang, . . Hind., Rms. White Is The Mourning Colour Of The Mahotne Dans Of Persia And It, India, And Of The Hindus, Parsecs, And Chinese. Blue With Hindus Is An Unlucky Colour. No One Will Buy A ...

Colquhoun
Colquhoun. In 1882, Messrs. Colquhoun And Wahab Crossed China From Canton To Burma. Mr. Wahab Subsequently Died. They Found The River Canton Navigable By Light - Draught Steamers For 400 Miles To The Upper Portion Of The Gorges And Rapids ; And Numerous Fine Cities In Yun-nan, Now Fast Decaying, ...

Columba
Columba, A Genus Of Birds Belonging T,o The Family Columbidre And Order Gemitores. C. Inter Media, C. Rupestris, C. Leuconota, Occur In India, C. Aromatica, C. Coronata, And C. Carpopliaga Have Been Referred To Other Genera. The Most E,ommon In India Is The— Columba Intermeclia, The Blue Pigeon Or Pagoda ...