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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 1

E Cervid
Cervid.,e, A Family Of Mammalia Belonging To The Tribe Ruminantia. They Are Remarkable For Their Fine Horns, Called Antlers, Which They Shed Annually, And The Females Of The Reindeer, Of All The Family, Possess Horns Normally. The Sub Families .of, The Family Cervidm Comprise The Cervinm, Or True Stag, With ...

Earth
Earth, Globe, World. Arad, Arab. Zamih, . . Pers. Myay, Bum Bhu , Sansk. Terre, Fr. Tierra, Sp. Erde, Ger. Bhum, Tam. Danya,jahan, Zamin, Hn. Toprak, . . . Turk. Terra, Rr , , Lat. The Surface Of The Globe Has 31,625,6251'2 Square Miles, Of Which The Waters Are 23,814,121. ...

East
East. Blashrik, . . . Arab. Dakshina, . . Est, Orient, . . . Fr. Orient° , Sr Osten, Morgenland, Ger. Gbyt121-doglwruagu, Terk. Ii-levante,. . . . By The Hindu, Who Worships The Sun, The Car Dinal Points Are Named With Reference To The East: Aspara, The Front, Or The ...

East India Company
East India Company. Several Of These Have Been Known In Tho South And East Of Asia. The Portuguese, Who Xvere The First To Visit India By Way Of Tbe Cape Of Good Hope, Doubled By Da Goma 22d November 1497, Never Put Their Eastern Trade Into The Hands Of An ...

East India Company
East India Company. Obtained From Shah Alam The Dewani Of Bengal, Behar, And Orkaa, April . . 1765 Suppressed Officers' Conspiracy, . . . 1766 Abolished Private Trade, January . . . 1767 Quitted India, January . . . . . 1767 A Committee Of Parliament Forrned To Examine Charges ...

East India Company 1686 87
East India Company. 1686-87. Resolve To Establish A Mint At Madras. 1686. An Attempt, Projected By Sir J. Child, To Acquire Territorial Empire In India Failed. 1687-88. Obtain A Charter To Make Madras A Corpora Tion. Charnock, Job. Settled At Calcutta 1690 ; Died 10th January 1692. 1691. Fort St. ...

East Indian
East Indian Is A. Term Which Has Been Adopted By All Classes In India, To Distinguish The Descendants Of Europeans And Native Mothers. Eurasian And Indo-briton Were For A Short Time In Use, But Have Ceased To Be Employed ; And Other Names, Such As Half-caste, Chatikar, And Chi-chi By ...

East Indies
East Indies. This Geographical Term Is Used To Distinguish The Tropical Countries In The Eastern Parts Of The World, From The West Indies, Com Posed Of The Islands Lying In The Tropics Between North And South America. The Term Is Used By The 13ritish, The Dutch, French, Portuguese, And Spaniards, ...

Eastern Turkestan
Eastern Turkestan, Chinese Turkestan, Or Little Bokhara, May Be Described As The Country To The East Of The Pamir Steppe. It Is Bounded On The North By The Tien Shan Range, On The South By The Himalaya And Konen Lun, And On The East By The Great Gobi Desert, Ivhich ...

Ebony
Ebony. Yendike, Tai, . . Berm. Ebenus, . . . • Lat. Wuh-mu, Wu-pi, Chin. Kayu-arang, . Malay. Ebben-hout, . . Dum. Ebenowoederewo, . Ens. Ebene . . . . Fr. Kalu Yere, . . Singh. Ebenh'olz, . . . Ger. Ebon, Sp. Ebenos, . . . . Gr. Kaka ...

Eclipse
Eclipse. Blunkasif ; Blunkhasif, An. Ecclissi, Finsterniss,. . . Ger. Graliana, . . Sansk. Girhan, . . . . Hind. Of Sun—nay-kyat-hgying ; Of Moon—la-kyat Bgying. Celestial Observations Were Made At Babylon B.c. 2234. The Chinese Wroto Of 36 Eclipses, Of Which Two Are Uncertain, But Of The Others There ...

Eden
Eden, A Hebrew Word Signifying Pleasure Or Delight, And Which Was Made The Mune Of Several Places Remarkably Fruitful In Their Soil. The First Ts Tlutt Province Which The Prophet Amos Seems To Notice (i. 5), Whoa He Divides Syria Into Three Mrts, Viz. Damascus, The Plain Of Avm), And ...

Edible Sea Weed
Edible Sea-weed, Plocaria Candida. Liyouk Puen, . . Bum. I . . Malay. A Sea-weed Abundant On The Tenasserim Coast, And Valuable For Its Nutritious And Medicinal Pro Perties. It Was Brought To Notice By Dr. O'shaugh Nessy As The Edible Moss Of The Eastern Archi Pelago, And Referred By ...

Edom
Edom. The Patriarch Of Tho Edomitcs Was Esau, And They Dwelt On Tho Dead Sea, From Which They Xvere Driven By An Earthquake. They Were A Warlike, Unsettled Race Of Arabs, Whose Property Was In Their Cattle, Their Waggons, And What Their Waggons Could Carry. They Did Not Cultivate The ...

Edrisi
Edrisi, A Nubian Geographer Who Visited The Court Of Sid Rai Jye Singh, The Ruler Of Anhalwara. Puttun, A.d. 1094 To 1145. Edrisi States That Jye Singh Was Then A Buddhist. Edrisi Lived A.d. 1099– 1186. Ile Mentions Porcelain, And Tho Fine Cotton Fabrics Of Coromandel, The Pepper And Cruxlamonts ...

Eggs
Eggs. Balza, . Amu. Uovo, It. Matte, Tetti, Gadda, Oan. Ovum, Lat. Ki-lwan, . . . . Curn. Huey°, Sp. Ki-tezo, Ki-tan, . „ Matta, Tail Ceufe, Fr. Gadda, Tel Botzirn, . . . . Bed. Zimurta, . . . Tunic. Unda, Hind. Eggs As Food Articles Are In Varied ...

Egypt
Egypt, In The Highway From Europe To The East, Is Ruled By The Khedive, A Hereditary Viceroy Under The Emperor Of Turkey. The Egyptian Dominions Are Equal In Extent To Russia In Europe ; Its Population, 5i Millions. But Egypt Proper, The Balad-ul-misr (the Misraim Of The Bible), Though 550 ...

Eklinga
Eklinga, A Celebrated Saiva Temple In The Defiles Of The Viudhya. The Most Antique Temples Are To Be Seen In Such Spots, Within The Dark Gorge Of The Mountain, Or On Its Rugged Summit, In The Depths Of The Forest, And At The Sources Of Streams, Where Sites Of Seclusion, ...

Elburz
Elburz. The Mountains Of Elburz, At The Foot Of The Southern Slopes Of Which The Town Of Teheran Is Situated. They Extend From The Plains Of Kazvin On The West, To The_town Of Deraavend On The East, Forming The Division Between The Low Belt Of Country On The Southern Shores ...

Elephant
Elephant. Hsen, Burm. Hasthi, . . . .sansk. Olyphant, Det., Se0eeh. Fiel, . . . . Scand. Elepbas, . . . Gr., Lat. Gallah, . . . . Singh. Hathi, . , . . . Hind. Elepbante, . . . . Sp. Elephantes, . . . It. Ani Tail Beram, ...

Elephanta
Elephanta, The Designation Which The October Storms Bear, All Over The Western Side Of India, Is Conferred On Them As Occurring About The Time When The Sun Is In The Constellation Hast'hi, The Sanskrit For Elephant. But As They Reached I3ombay From Nearly Dite East, Their Name Is There Not ...

Elettaria Cardamomum Tv
Elettaria Cardamomum. Tv H . And Mat. Cardamomum, Elettaria, L.and Pharm. Amomum Repens, Woody. Var. ,e6. E. Cardamornum Am. ^cardamon-111m, '.„ Minor, Rheede. Am. Racernosum, Lanz. Var. Is. E. Cardamomum Cardamomum Minus. Major, Smith. Kakula, Ebil, Ahab. Barra Ilachi, . . Hind. Pa-lah, Ba-la, . . Burn. Capulaga, Puwar Maw'. ...

Ellora
Ellora, In Lat. 20°2' N., And Long. 75° 11' E., In The Dekhan, N.w: Of Aurangabad. The Entrance To The Caves Is 2064 Feet Above The Sea. It Is Called By The People Yerula And Ballora, And Varula, And Is Near Roza In The Bowlatabad Pro Vince Of The Dekhan. ...

Embeilizinx
Embeilizinx, A Sub - Family Of Birds Of The Family Fringillidto. They Comprise The Genera Emberiza, Euspiza, And Melophus, The Buntings, Ortolans, Coni Buntings, And Crested Buntings. Three Or Four Visit India During The Winter. Emberiza Pithyornis, Pallas, White - Crowned Bunting. E. Cia, Linn., White - Browed Bunting Of ...

Embroidery
Embroidery. Tatriz, Arab. Chikandozi, . . . Hind. Broderie, Fr. Chikankari, . . „ Stickerei, . . . . Ger. Ricamatura, . . . It. Xashida Zardozt, Hind. Bordado, Sp. . The Art Of Embroidery Is One Consonant With The Habits Of The People Of India ; Their Patience And ...

Emerald
Emerald. Zamurrud, . Arab., Pers. Prrila, . . Bind. Erneiatide, . . . Fr. Smeraldo, . . . . It. Smaragd, . . . , Ger. Permataeju, . Malsat. Ismaragdon, . . Gr. Esmeralda, . . . 8r. Stnaragdus, . Gr., Lat. Patches Kallu, . . Tail, Nophec, . . ...

Emery
Emery. Emeri ; Emeril, . . Fr. Nashdak, . . . . Rus. Sxnirgel, . . . . . Ger. Esmeril, . . . . Sp. Smeregio ; Srnerglio, It. Zimpara, . . . Turk. Lat This Substance Is Greatly Used In The Arts For Grinding An.d Polishing Hard Minerals ...

Epiphytes
Epiphytes Are Plants Grossing Upon Other Vegetables, Adhering To Their Bark, And Rooting Among The Scanty Soil That Occupies Their Surface, In Which Respect They Aro Distinguished From Parasitical Plauta, Which, Like Mistletoe And The Various Species Of Lora- Nthus, Strike Their Abortive Roots Into The Wood, And Flouriali Upon ...

Eriodendron Anfractuosum D C
Eriodendron Anfractuosum. D. C. Bombax Pentand Rum, L. Gossampinus Rumphii,sch. Ceiba Pentandra, Ga-rtn. And End. Shwet Shimool, . Begu. Paniala, Pania, Maleal. "white Cotton Tree, Eng. Putim, Imbool, . Ilattian, Seed Simal, 11n. Elavum Maram, . . Tasi. Shernielait, . . Mahr. Pur, Buruga, . . Tel. There Are Six ...

Ertjlar
Ertjlar, A Dravidian Race Occupying The Skirts Of The Forests At The Base Of The Neiigherry Hills.. They Dwell In The Clefts Of The Mountains, And In The Little Openings Of The Woods. They Arran..ge Them Selves Into Two Clans, The Urali And Kunttalei, Meaning Rtilers And Serfs. • The ...

Ertoghrul
Ertoghrul, Father Of Usman, The Founder Of The Turkish Empire. He Was The Leader Of A Little Band, A Frag-rnent Of A Tribe Of Oghuz Turk, Which, Under Ertoglu-ul's Father, Suliman Shah, Had Left Their Settlements In Khora.san, Arid So Journed For A Time In Armenia. After A Few Years ...

Erythroxylon
Erythroxylon, A Genus Of Plants Of The Order Lineal E. Burmaaficum, Kunthianum, And Monogynum Are Known In The East Indies. The Heart-wood Of E. Monogynum, Nexb., Has A Pleasant Resinous Smell, Is Very Hard, And Takes A Beautiful Polish. Beddome Gives It As A Synonym Of E. Indicum, D. C. ...

Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus. This Genus Of Lofty Trees Ill Found In The Itialay Peninsula, But It Is Chiefly In Austmlia, Where The Munerous Species Occur In Great Profusion, And, With The Leafless Acacia Trees, Give A Most Remarkable Character To The Scenery. Several Eucalypti Have Been Introduced Into India, And Are Growing ...

Eucheuma Spinosum
Eucheuma Spinosum, 'lg., Of Malacca, Yields Part Of The Agar-agar Of Commerce. The Plants And Their Synonyms Which Yield The Com Mercial Agar-agar Are As Under :— Eucheuma Spinosum, Ag. Gigartina Spinosa, Grew. Fucus Spinosus, Linn. Plocaria Candida, Nees. F. Tenax. Gracillaria Tenax. Gigartina Tenax, Turner. G. Spinosa. Bulung, Jay ...

Eugenia
Eugenia, A Genus Of Plants Named In Honour Of Prince Eugene Of Savoy. It Still Contains Nearly 200 Species, Though Numbers Have Been Removed To The Genera Nelitris, Jossinia, Myreia, Sizygium, Caryophyllus, And Jambosa, In Which Are Now Contained The Clove-tree, The Rose-apple, And Jamoon Of India, Formerly Included In ...

Eunuch
Eunuch. Eunuque, . . . . Fr. Eunuco, Sp Verschnittene, . Ger. Khadirn, . . . Turk. Khajah, Kboja, . Hind. Eunuchs Are Employed In The Households Of The Mahomedans And Hindus Of Egypt, Persia, Arabia, India, And China. We Learn From Herodotus (lib. 6) That The'persians In Remote Thies ...

Euphorbia Thymifolia
Euphorbia Thymifolia. Linn. Shwet Kherua, . Beng. Patcha-arisc . . Tam. Duddhi, . . . . Sittrapaladi, . . „ Racta Vmda Chada, Sansk. Bidduru Nanabiyam, Tel. Chin-amam, . . Tam. Reddi-vari-nana-bala, „ This Little Annual Plant Is Common In The South Of Asia. Its Juice And Flowers Are Purgative, ...

Euphorbiaceje
Euphorbiaceje, The Euphorbium Tribe O Plants, Consists Of Trees, Shrubs, Or Herbs, Many O Them Abounding In An Acrid Juice. The Nutnbe: Of Species Has Been Estimated At 1500, And Dr Roxburgh Describes 120 In India. The Genera Property Of This Order Is That Of Exciting, Varyinl In Degree Froln ...

Euphrates
Euphrates, In Arabic And Persian Forat Or Forath, In The Hebrew Language Perath Or Phrath, Words Which Mean To Fructify Or T,o Fertilize. The Elevated Plateau Which Extends From The Base Of Mount Ararat Into Northern Armenia, Kurdistan, And Part Of Asia Minor, Contains The Sources Of Four Noble Rivers, ...

Europe
Europe, One Of The Five Great Divisions Of The World. Its Extent From Cape St. Vincent To The Mouth Of The Cana Is Nearly 3400 Miles ; And From Cape Matapan, In Morea, To The North Cape In Lapland, About 2400. Europe Is Much Smaller Than Either Asia Or Africa. ...

Eusufzai
Eusufzai, An Afghan Tribe Svhose Territory Is Bounded On The S. By Tho Indus, N. And E. By 1.1 Ithe Swat Mountains, And W. By The Kabul River ,and The Mehra Or Desert Plateau Between It And 111ushtutiggur. The Tract Is Intersected On The E. ,isy Offshoma From The Swat ...

Evaporation M
Evaporation. M. Lainairesse Mentions That The Engineers In The Madras Presidency Allow For A Loss Of Water Iu Irrigation By- Evapora Tion, Of 3 Inches Daily Per Square Yard Of Land Irrigated. In The Red Tank, Near Madras, In The Five Months April To August The Writer Went Down 75 ...

Evil Eye 1
Evil Eye. 1 . . . Auto. Mal Occhio, Jattatura, It. Baskanos Ophthaimos, Gli. Drashti Dosham, Sansk. Kalco Mati, . . . „ Kan Pada, . . . . Tam. Chashm-i-bad, . Hind. Kannu Tan, . . . Tel. The Evil Eye Alluded To In Proverbs Xxviii. 22 And Mark ...

Ezra
Ezra, The Prophet Scribe, Called By The Maho Medans Ozair. According To Mahornedan Tradi Tion, Ezra, Was Of The Race Of Jacob, Of The Tribe Of Levi, And Fourteenth In Descent From Aaron. They Say That The Holy S Criptures, And All The Scribes And Doctors Who Could Read And ...

Fa Iiian
Fa Iiian, A Chinese Buddhist Traveller In India, Khotan (yu-than), And Tibet, Along With Hoei King And Other Chinese Pilgrims. They Reached Yu-than Or Khotan In A.d. 399-400. Fa Ilian Then Tmvelled By Tsu-bo And Yu-hoei And Over The Tsu-ling Mountains Southwards To Kie-chlta, The Modern Ladakh, Where He Rejoined ...

Fabacee
Fabacee, The Bean Tribe, Leguminous Plants, Of Which About 300 Known Species Belong To New Holland And Polynesia, 42 To Japan And China, 12 To Timor 14 To Persia, 20 To Arabia, And 891 Species In The E. Indies And Java, Arranged Under 133 Genera. It Comprises 362 Genera, And ...

Fair
Fair, Called In India A Meta Or Assemblage, Is Held Periodically At Many Places. The System Exists In Full Force In Turkestan, North Of Hindu Kush. It Is Not Unknown In Some Parts Of The Kabul Dominions, And Has Long Been Familiar To The Natives Of India. At The Great ...

Faizi
Faizi, The Literary Title Of Shaikh Abu'l Faiz, Son Of Shaikh Mubosak, And Elder Brother Of Abul Fazl, Who Lived In The Reign Of Abkar, Emperor Of Hiudustan. Faizi Was Presented To Akbar In The 12th Year Of His Reign, And He Intro Duced Abul Fazl Six Years Later, In ...

Famines
Famines. Qahat, . . . Arab. Rambre , Sp Hunger-snoth, . Ger. Achlik, . . . Turk. Carestia, It Famines Have Repeatedly Occurred In S. Asia And In India, Owing To Tbe Failure Of Rain, But Occasionally Aggravated By Wars, Necessitating An Interruption To Agricultural Operations, And Ren Dered Longer ...

Faqeer
Faqeer, Fakir, Darvesh Or Dervis, Amongst The Mahomedans, Religious Orders Or Communities, Of Whorn There Are Several Sects. In India Only Ten Classes Are Generally Met With. The Kalandar Darvesh Are Rarely Seen In India. Faqir Is From Fukr, Arab, The Persian Name Darvesh Is From Dar, A Door, And ...

Faraz
Faraz. Arun. In The Mahomedan Religion, Points Ordered By God—god's Commandments ; Sunnud Being The Ordinances Of Their Prophet. For Instance, The Ramzan Or Ecd-ul-fitr Feast And The Bakr-eed Feast Are Alike Fan And Sunnucl, While The Akhri-char Shambah, The Maharram, And The Shab-i-burat Are Only Sunnud. Thus, Also, Captain ...

Fars
Fars, Pars Or Farsistan, Is The Province Of The Kingdom Of Persia Which Gives Its Name To The Country. It Lies Between Lat. 27° 20' And 31° 42' N., And Long. 49° 20' And 54° E., Being About 220 Miles In Length And Breadth. It Has Kirman And Luristan On ...

Fathom
Fathom. This Is A Natural Measure, From Point To Point Of The Outstretched Hands. ,it Was Common To Greek, Roman, And Indian, And Is Four Cubits In Length. The Greeks And Romans Had Also The Foot (pes), The Hand (palm), The Palm (7reactiar0, And The Finger (digitus). The Romans Also ...

Fayrer
Fayrer, Sin Joseph, M.d., Ll.d. And F.r.s. London And Edinburgh, F.r.c.p. London, And F.r.c.s. Of England And Edinburgh, Fellow Of The University Of Calcutta, Fellow Of The Botanical Society Of Edinburgh, Vice-president Of The Zoological Society Of London, Knight Commander Of The Star Of India. He Entered The British Navy ...

Feasts
Feasts. Ziafat, . Arab., Rem Bancbatto, . . . . Ir. Featin , Fr. Banquete, . . . . Sr. Feat, . . . . Ger. Feasts Are Often Mentioned In The Old And New Testamemts, And The Texts Find Many Illus Trations In India. Genesis Xlv. 22 Says, •to ...

Feathers
Feathers. Rishat, . . . . Arab. Plume, • It. Pluimen,. . . . Bulu, . . . . • Malay. Plumes, Fr. Plumas, Sp. Federn, . . . . Ger. Rakaigal, . . . Tam. Par, Hind. Rekkalu, . . . Tel. In Asia, Feathers Are Never Used For ...

Felts
Felts, A Genus Of The Mammalia, Of The Cat Kind, Of The Natural Order Carnivora, The Family Felidre, And Tribe Felinm. Amongst Naturalists, The Notices Of Them Are Usually Limited To The Larger Wild Animals Of This Genus. The Lion, The Pard, The Cheeta, The Ehaus, The Wild Cat, And ...

Feroz Tagiialaq Shah
Feroz Tagiialaq Shah, King Of Debit, Was Grandfather Of Sultan 3fahmud, Whom Timur Conquered. It Was This King (a.d. 1351-1388, Am. 752-790) Who Removed The Lat Or Pillar, According To Ono Account, From Near Kilizrabad, Immediately West Of The Juinna, At The Foot Of The Siwalik Hills, To Dehli, And ...

Feudatory
Feudatory, A Term Applied, Since A.d. 1860, To The Rulers Of Territories Enclosed Within British Districts. They Are Chiefly In The Panjab, Bombay Presidency, Central And N.w. Provinces ; And In 1881 Their Subjects Were 13,254,402 Souls. There Are, Besides, Several Native States In Central India, Baroda, Cochin, Hyderabad, Mysore, ...

Fibrous Materials
Fibrous Materials. Fibres Are Either Cellular In Their Structure, Like The Cott,on, Bombax Cotton, Maclar Fibres, Or They Consist Of Woody Tissue Or Fibre, Like The Lotus Fibre, Flax, Hemp, Jute, Sunn, Etc. But The Cellular Fibres Are Not The Product Of Stem Or Leaves, But Of The Seed-vessels, Etc. ...