Ossara rewand, . ARAB. Rong , MALAY.
Tha-nat-dau, . Bumf. Shir-i-rewand, PERS.
Shie-hws,ng, . . CHIN. Gomarum, . . PORT.
Tang-hwang, . . „ Gokkatu, . . SINGH. Gutte-gurn, . . . DOT. Goma guta o guta, . SP. Gornme gutte, . . FR. Gamba, Gummigutt, . . GER. Makki, TAM Gomma-gutta, . . IT. Passapu-yennai, . . TEL.
Gamboge is obtained from several plants in Southern Asia,—from the Garcinia pictoria of Ceylon, the G. Cochin-Chinensis, Rumph., of Siam, the G. ellipties., TVall., of Siam, Sylhet, and Tavoy ; and G. morella, var. pedicillata, of Siam, is also said by Hartman to yield Siam gamboge. A tree common in Hu-peh, in China, is said to yield a gam boge-like substance. The gamboge of commerce is known by the names of Ceylon and Siam gam boge. Siam gamboge is usually seen in cylinders, whence its nauae of pipe gamboge ; but it is also seen as lump or cake gamboge, in round cakes or masses, and as coarse gamboge or fragments and inferior pieces. Ceylon gamboge is seen in ir regular masses. The first notice of this vegetable gum-resin is by Clusius in 1605, who described a piece brought from China by Admiral Van Neck in 1603. Two trees yielding a gamboge like substance were first made known by Her mann in 1670, one called Goraka, Garcinia cam bogia, the other Kana or edible, Hebradendron cambogioides. At present gamboge is received
principally from G. rnorellas G. hexandras, G. Wightii, G. Travancorica, 'G. xanthochymus. About 30 to 50 tons are annually imported into Great Britain, -where it sells at 15 to 111 the cwt.
The composition and properties of the gamboge of Ceylon are identical, or very nearly s6, with those of other gambogioid exudations. The Singhalese method of collecting the gamboge is by 'cutting pieces of the bark completely off, about the size of the palm of the hand, early in the morning. The gamboge oozes out from the pores of the wood in a semi-liquid state, but soon thickens, and is scraped off by the collectors the next morning without injury to the tree, the wounds in the bark soon healing, and becoming fit to undergo the operation again. Gamboge is much used as a pigment and in miniature painting ; it is employed to colour varnishes and lacquers. Gamboge of Mysore is the exudation of Garcinia inslie Royle ; O'Sh.; Cleghorn ; Eng. Cyc. ; TV. 111. ; C. See Clusiacem; Garcinia.