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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 1

Ficus
Ficus, A Geuus Of Plants Belonging To The Natural Order Urticacem. The Number Of Species Is Great, And They Are All Either Tropical Or Inhabitants Of Warm Countries. Some Aro Small Plants, Others Are Among The Largest Trees Of The Forest ; Others Of Them Yield A Useful Caoutchouc ; ...

Ficus Elastica
Ficus Elastica. Rozb. Kusnir, . . . . Beng. Indian Rubber Tree.. Eso. Elastic Fig Tree, . Eng. Kasnir, . . . Sylhzt. Caoutchouo Tree, . „ The Indian Caoutchouc Tree Inhabits Assam, Khassya, British Burma, The Pundua And The Juntipur Mountains, Which Bound The Province Of Sylliet On The ...

Ficus Indica
Ficus Indica. Linn. Banyan Tree. P. Bengalcnsis, Linn. 1 Urostigma Bengal., Mig. But, Bat, Bar, . . Beng. Maha Nooga-gass, . Singh. Pa-nyoung, . . . Burm. Kiripelle, . . . Ahlada Rnara, . . Can. Ala Maram . . Tam. Arbor De Rais, . . Rola. Marri Chett'u, . ...

Fiji
Fiji, A Group Of Islands Belonging To Great Britain In The South Seas, About 1800 Miles From Sydney. They Extend From Lat. 15° 30' To 20° 30' S. The Group Of 180 Reef-bound Islands Occupy An Area Of 40,000 Square Miles. Only 40 Of Them Are Inhabited, And The Population ...

Filigree
Filigree, A Style Of Delicate Wirework Used For Ornamenting Gold And Silver, Introduced By The Italians, Who Call It Filigrana, A Word Com Pounded Of Filum, A Thread Or Wire, And Granum, A Grain Or Bead ; This Is In Allusion To The Early Practice Of Ornamenting Tho Wirework With ...

Finn
Finn, A Race Occupying Finnland In The North Of Europe, Supposed To Be Of The Same Stock With Tho Turkoman, The Chude, Tho Laplander, And The Magyar Of Hungary. Rask Was Of Opinion That The Language Of The Lap, The Finn, And Basque Of Europe, And Of Tho Cuchuwari, Kohati, ...

Fire
Fire. Nar, . . . • . . Arab. Ignis, Lat. Mee , Bum. Api , Malay. Feu, Fr Fuego, Sp Feur, Ger. Narapu, . . . . Tam. Ag, Agn, . . . Hind. Nepu, Tel. Fuoco, It. Atish, . Fers., Turk. Fire Is Frequently Mentioned In The Writings ...

Firewood
Firewood. Bois De Chauffage, . Fr. I Lakri, Hind. Brennholz, . . . Ger. I Lena Para El Fuego, . Sp. Firewood Is The Chief Fuel Used In The E. Indies, And The Less Valuable Trees Of Each Locality Are Cut. On The East Coast Of The Peninsula The Fuel ...

Fish Maws
Fish Maws, Fish Sounds, Air-bladder, Swim. I Singally, Sozilly, . Beng. Sozili (small), Guj., H/nd. Loo-pa Loo-pa, . Chin. Palogpong Ikan, . Blalny. Poota (large), Gill, Hind. Ari, Ari Ikan„ . „ Are Terms Applied In Oriental Commerce To The Air-bladder, Sound, Or Swim Of Fishes. It Is An Article ...

Fisheries
Fisheries Of Eastern And Southern Asia. The Numbers Of Fish In The Seas Of India Are Vast, But The Harvest Is Comparatively Untouched ; An Enormous Amount Of Food Remains Uncaptured, While Famines Devastate The Contiguous Shores. Tho Fisheries Of India Ought To Provide Food For Multitudes Of Its People, ...

Fishermen
Fishermen. On All The Sea-coasts Of The South And Ea.st Of Asia, And On The Great Rivers, The People Are Fishers. There Is Something Re Markable In The Circumstance Of The Fisher Races Being Amongst The Earliest And Most Eager Con Verts To Christianity In India. So Much So As ...

Fishes
Fishes Of The South And East Of Asia. Samkat, . . . Arab. Pisces , Lat. An-gna, . . . Boric Ikan, . . . . Malay. Fisk, . . . Da.11.7 Sw. Main, . . . . Prais. Vissehen, . . . Dur. Rybi, . . . Polish. Poisson, ...

Fisii Oil
Fisii Oil Manufacture Is Carried On All Along The Western Coast Of India. The Great Source Of Supply Is Tbo Shark And The Skate. The Livers Of These Are Cut Out, And Thrown Into A Vat Or Old Canoe Or Other Receptacle, And Trodden On With The Feet Till The ...

Fitch
Fitch. Ralph Fitch, A London Merchant, Travelled Through India And Burma About 1583-91, In The Reign Of Queen Elizabeth, Along With Another London Merchant Named Newberry, And Accom Panied By A Jeweller Named I.redes And An Artist Named Storie Or Storey, All At The Charge Of Sir Edward Osborne And ...

Flax
Flax. Ifushina,. . . . Beno. Lino, . . . Ir., Br. Llin . . . . Crum). Limun, . . . . Lat. Dut. Atish ; Tisi; Alisi, Pan/. . Fe. Kutan, . . . Peen. Flachs, . . . . Ger. Len, . . . Pol., Mts. Lein, ...

Floods
Floods. Seil, Arab. Wilms°, It. Inondation, . . . Fr. Diluvio, Sp. Fluth, . . . . Ger. Of These, The Traditions Of Nations Mention Several. One Hellenic Tradition Is Known As The Flood Of Deucalion, Son Of Prometheus, Who Built The Ark, Which Rested On Parnassus In Thessaly. A ...

Flora
Flora Of The South And East Of Asia Has Been Largely Described By Sotne Of The Most Eminent Of The Botanists Of The World, Whose Names Will Be Seen Under The Article Botany. But The Most Complete Recent View Given Of The Plants Of This South-eastern Region Is By Drs. ...

Flores
Flores, Called Also Endie Or Mangerye, Extensive Island Of The Archipelago, 201 Miles Long From E. To W., And From 42 To 45 Miles Broad. Flores Head Is In About Lat. 8° 44' S. And Long.122° 50' E. It Is So Naxned From The Portuguese Word Flor, A Flower. Flores ...

Floricans
Floricans Are Birds Of The Tribe Preasirostres, Family Otididto, Bustards And Florieans, Which Occur In Inany Parts Of India, And To The N.w. Towards Afghanistan. They Are, Like The Bustard, Speckled, Greyish-coloured Birds ; The Males Have Plumes, And Change Their Plumage In The Breeding Season. The Little Bustard Of ...

Flowers
Flowers. Zahrat, . . . . Arab. Fiore, Ir. Fleur, Fr Nor Sr. I3lume, Kern, . . Ger. Pu, . . . . Tam., Tel. Phul, . Pers. Chiehek, . . . . Turk. Flowers Are Largely Used By Mahomedans,hindus, Buddhists, And The Followers Of Confucius In Their Worship Of ...

Flying Fisii
Flying Fisii. Jera,d Ul Bahr, Arab. The Flying Fish Are Species Of The Genus Exocetus, Be Longing To The Abdominal Malacopterygii, Form Ing Part Of The Family Exocidem. Their Pectoral Fins Are Very Long, Nearly Equal To Tho Length Of The Body. The Fish, To Escape Its Enemies, Rises Into ...

Fodder
Fodder For Cattle In India Is Of Various Plants, —the Root Of The Hariali Grass, Cynodon Dactylon ; The Stalk Of The Joar, Sorghum Vulgare, Cut Into Small Pieces ; The Straw Of Several Grasses, Paspa Lum Scrobiculatum, Penicillaria Spicata, Panicurn Italicum, P. Frumentaeeum, P. Miliare, And Eleusine Egyptiaca. Buffaloes ...

Foivls
Foivls. Ki ; Chuh-ye, . . Chin. I Murghi, . . . . Hind. Ouph, Hee. Koli, . . . . . Tam. Though In Numerous Breeds And Sub-breeds, All The Domestic Fowls Seem To Have Diverged From A Single Type. The Game Breed Is From The Gallus Bankiva, Called ...

Food
Food. Taam, Ghaza, . Arab. Adhar, . . . . Sassr. Nourriture, . . . Fn. Alimento, . . . Sp. Khans; Khana.-pins,hind. Choram, . . Tau. Cibo Vivant's, . . It. Bhojnam , Tel. Razaq ; Khuraq, . Pers. Yemek ; Yezejek, Tube. The Food Of Man Is Obtained ...

For M Ic
For M Ic Id/e, An Extensive Family Of Hymenopterous Insects, Belonging To The Section Aculeata, Sub-section Heterogyna, Latreille, Com Prising The Numerous Tribes Of Ants. The Family Is Distinguished By The Wingless State Of Their Abortive Females,.by The Great Length Of The Basal Joint Of The Antentim In The Females ...

Forests
Forests. . Forat • . • . • . • . Fr. Biaban,• . • . • . . Pers. Forst; Wald, . Ger. Floresta, Selvosa, . Sp. Jangal, . . . . Hind. Omr; . . . Turk. Foresta, Rose°, . It. Drs. Roxburgh, Boyle, Wallich, Gibson, And M ...

Formosa Or
Formosa Or Pahan Island, Called Also Ty Oan. Is About 210 Miles In Length From N.n.e. To S.s.w., Its South Point, Called The Cape Of Formosa, Being In Lat. 21° 531-1 N., Long. 150° 531' E. It Is 20 To 80 Miles Wide, And Is Traversed Down Its Centre By ...

Fossils
Fossils. Copal Occurs Fossil Along With Lignite In The Tertiary Beds Of The Malabar Coast Near Travancore, And On The East Coast Of Africa. It Was First Found In The Blue Clay At Highgate, Near London ; It Occurs Also At Wochlow In 3loravia. It Occurs In Irregular Pieces Or ...

Frankincense
Frankincense. Kundur, . . Dukh. Kamanan, Manan,malay. Encens, Fr: Minan, Kamayan„ Incenso, . . . It , Sp. Kandncam, . . . Ta.m. Of This There Are Several Ldnds In Commerce. The Best Are The Arabian Or Tear Olibanutn, The African, And The East Indian Or Stalactitic. Olibanum And B'delliurn, ...

Frogs
Frogs. Greneuille, . . . Fr. Ranocchia, . . . . It. Frosch Ger. Rana, Sp. Mendak, . . Hind. Frogs Are Very Common In All The South And East Of Asia. They Belong To The Reptile Sub-class Batrachia, And Order Batrachia Salienta. The Malabar Bull-frog, Hylorana Malabarica, Occurs In ...

Fruit
Fruit. Samar, Thamar, Arab. Bua, Malay. Athi , Bum. Bar, Mewa, . . Pers. Ooft, Dtrr. Owoschtsch, . . . Ree. Obst, Fruchte, . Ger. Fruta, Sp Phal, Mewa, . Hind. Kaijallam, . . . Tata. Frutta, Frutte, . It. Pandu, Also Kaia, . Tel. Fructum, . . . Lat. ...

Fungus
Fungus. Ti-rh ; Muh-rb, . Cumz. ' Shirian Of . . Jiteluir. Cbampignon, Fongus, Fr. Kulat, Chandawan,malar Schwamm, . . . Ger. Llat-bakri Of . . . Kari. Kana Kuchu, . . Limn. 'longo, Sr. Fungo It. Under This Yam° Botanists Comprehend Not Only Tho Various Races Of Mushrooms, Toadstools, ...

Furniture
Furniture, And Furniture Woods. Meubles, Fr. Mobili, It. Ameublement, . . . „ Ajuar, Sp. Hausgerath, . . Ger. Dasbimi, Eshzy, . Turk. The Native Carpenters Of India Have Long Been Celebrated For The Great Patience And Fidelity With Which They Imitate The Most Elaborate Details Either Of Art Or ...

Furs
Furs. Fourrure, . . Fn. I Pelo, Pia , Sp. Fell, Pelz, . . . Ger. Kyftrk, . . . . Turk. I'elle, Pellicia, . . . Ir. Furs Are The Skins Of Different Animals With Tho Inner Side Converted Into A Sort Of Leather, And The Outer Fine Hair ...

Fustic
Fustic. Geelhout, . . . . Dut. Fustiek, . . . . Ger. Bois Jaune De Bresil, Fr. Legno Giallo De Brasilio, It. Gelbholz, . . . . Ger. Palo Delbrasillomaxillo,sr. A Dye-wood The Produce Of The Madura Tinctoria, Nutt, A Large Tree Of Tropical America And The West Indies.-21pculloch ...

Gabar Pers
Gabar. Pers. A Person Not A Mahomedan, In General, But Commonly A Zoroastrian, A Parsee Or Fire-worshipper • An Idol-worshipper, An Infidel; Any Unbeliever In Kahomedanism In General; But The Word Is More Specially Applied To A Fire Worshipper. Meninski Says, Ignicola, Naagus Infi Delis Quivis Pagartus.' The Woad Is ...

Gaekwar
Gaekwar, A Feudatm7 Sovereign Of India, Who Resides At Baroda. The Family Are Of The Cowherd Race, And Formed Part Of The Great 3fahratta Con Federacy, To Whose Supremacy The British Succeeded. The Gaekwar Family Sprang In 1720 From Da Maji Gaekwar Shamsher Bahadur (obiit 1768), An Officer Under Khandi ...

Gakkar
Gakkar, A Tribe Inhabiting Portions Of The Hazara, Jhelum, And Rawal Pindi Districts. They Clahn To Have Been Mahomedans From Seistan, But They Really Were One Of The Oldest And Most Powerful Of The Hindu Dynasties Of The Paujab. In Combination With Other Rajas, They Bravely Opposed Mahmud On The ...

Galam Butter
Galam Butter, A Reddish-white Solid Oil Obtained From Bassin Butyracea.—simmonds' Dict. Galangal, Gafitnga. Kust-talkh, . . . Arab. Langkwa, . . Malay. Kolangan, . . . . „ Kalgan, . . . . Rus. Laun.don, . . . Chin. Kolanjana, . . Same. . . . . G En. A ...

Galena
Galena, Sulphide Of Lead, Lead Glance, Lead Ore. Plomb Sulfure, Fr. ; Bleiglanz, Ger. This Is The Richest Ore Of Lead, And From Which That Metal Is Chiefly Obtained. As Met With In Commerce, It Is In Heavy, Shining, Black Or Bluish Lead - Coloured Cubical Masses, Having A Great ...

Galeodes Aranoides
Galeodes Aranoides. Species Of This Genus Of Spiders Occur In Central Asia, Tartary, And The Himalaya. The Lycosa Or Tarantuloides Singoriensis (aranea Tarantula, Pallas), And The Scorpion Spiders Common On The Steppes, Are The Galeodes Aranoides (phalangium Aranoides, Pallas). The Latter, Or A Congener Common In Afghanistan, Was There Mistaken ...

Galls
Galls, Gall-nut, Nut-gall. Afaz, A63, . . . Aba% Gallm, Lat Py-in-ta-gar-ne-thi, Burm. Majakani, . . Malay. Mu-shih-tsze, . . Chin. Mazu, Fikis, . . Pers. Gal-apfel, . . . . Dut. Galhas, . . . . Port. Galles, Noix De Galles,fr. Mayapbal, . . . Sansk. Gallapfel, Gallus, . ...

Gallus
Gallus, A Genus Of The Sub-family Gallinm, Of The Family Phasianidm. The Gallinm Comprise , The Jungle-fowls Of India And Malayana, The Firebacks And Black Pheasants Peculiar To The 1malayan Region, And A Small Group In India And Ceylon, The Spur-fowl Of Indian Sportsmen. The Very Beautiful Diardigallus Prelatus, Bonaparte, ...

Gambier
Gambier, Catechu, Temt Japoniat. Piu-lan.kau, . . Cruet. Gambia, . . . Malay. Gambier Is Extracted From The Leavesand Shoots Of The Uncaria Gambler, In Sink, Malacca, And Bittang. As Brought To The Market, It Resembles In Appearance And Consistency Little Square Blocks Of Yellow Mud. A Gambier Plantation Has ...

Game Birds
Game Birds Of British India Have Been In A Brief Manner Noticed Under The Heading Birds Of India, And The More Important Will Be Found Under Their Respective Titles In More Detail. They Have Been Well Described In A Monograph By Mr. A. O. Hume, C.b. Game Birds, Elephants, And ...

Games
Games Of A Country Take Their Colour And Complexion From The Prevailing Character Of Their Inhabitants ; And In The Different Physical Condi Tions Of The Regions In The S. And E. Of Asia, The Amusements Of Their Inhabitants Aro Widely Dis Similar. In The Hot Climate Of The Plains ...

Gami3oge
Gami3oge. Ossara Rewand, . Arab. Rong , Malay. Tha-nat-dau, . Bumf. Shir-i-rewand, Pers. Shie-hws,ng, . . Chin. Gomarum, . . Port. Tang-hwang, . . „ Gokkatu, . . Singh. Gutte-gurn, . . . Dot. Goma Guta O Guta, . Sp. Gornme Gutte, . . Fr. Gamba, Gummigutt, . . Ger. ...

Ganesa
Ganesa Is The Hindu God Of Prudence And Policy, And The Patron Of Letters. He Is The Reputed Eldest Son Of Siva. And Parvati, And As Siva's Eldest Son Is Called Vigneswara ; But Is Said Also To Have Been Produced Without A Father By The Intense Longing Of Parvati. ...

Ganga
Ganga, In Hindu Mythology, The Personified Goddess Of The River Ganges, The Source Of Which The Saiva Sects Place In Siva's Hair; Whence, In Graceful Flow, She 'sprung Radiant, And, Descending, Graced The Caverns Of The West.' The Vaishnava Sects Assert That It Flowed Out Of Vaikuntha, From The Foot ...

Ganges
Ganges, The Great River Of Northern India, Is Formed By The Drainage Of The Southern Ranges Of The Himalaya. It Rises In The Garhwal State, In Lat. 30° 56' 4" N., And Long. 79° 6' 40° E., And Falls Into Tho Bay Of Bengal After A Course Of 1557 Miles. ...

Gangotri
Gangotri, Mountain Temple In Garhwal State, Panjab ; Lat. 30° 59' N., Long. 78° 59' E., And 10,319 Feet Above The Sea. It Stands On The Right Bank Of The Bhagirathi Or Ganges, 8 Miles From Its Source, In A, Small Bay Or Inlet, Surrounded By A, Wall Of Unliewn ...

Ganjam
Ganjam, A Small Seaport Town In Lat. 19° 22' 27" N., Long. 85° 2' 52" E., With A Population .of 4163 Souls. It Gives Its Name To A Revenue District In The North-east Of The Madras Presidency Lying Between Lat. 18° 15' And 20° 15' N., And Betiveen Long. 83° ...

Garcia Silva
Garcia Silva Flquerva, In A.d. 1627, Visited Persia On A Diplomatic Mission. Garcinia, A Genus Of The Garciniacere, The Inangosteen Tribe, A Natural Order Of Plants, Con Sisting Of Trees Or Shrubs Growing In Ceylon, The Peninsulas Of India, Tbo K Haasya Mountains, Sylhet, Burma, Andamans, Java, And The Moluccas. ...

Gardens
Gardens And Gardeners. Jardin, Fit I Giardino , Ir. Garten, Dan Lluertajarditi,. . Sr. Ilagh, Ilaghicha, . Rum. Tote, . Tam., Tel. Alike Amongst Mahomedans And Hindus, The Formation Of A Garden As A Place Of Retreat Is A Great Object Of Desire. In Wilson's Specimens Of The Hindu Drams, ...

Gardokh
Gardokh, Garo, Garoo, Gartop, Yoogar, Or Gurtokh, Is Known By All These Names. Rudokh Is To The East By South Of The Padgong Lake, At ' About Lat. 33° 25' N., And Long. 72° 40' E., And Gardokh Between The Sources Of The Indus And Sutlej At About Lat. 31° ...

Garhwal
Garhwal, In The Himalaya, Has A British Portion And A Native State. British Garhwal, In The N.w. Provinces, Lies Between Lat. 29° 26' And 31° B' N., And Between Long. 78° 17' 15' And 80° 8' E., With An Estimated Area Of 5500 Square Miles ; Pop. (1872), 310,288 Persons. ...

Garnet
Garnet. Hung-sha, . . . Granati, Carbunculus,lat. Grenat, Fr Yakut ? . . . Mala.r. ? Granat-stein, . . . Ger. Sang-i-mabtab„ . Pers. ? Granaten, . . . . „ Granatnoi-kamen, . Rus. Tambra, . . . Hinn. Granadas, . . . . Sp. Granate, It Garnet Is A ...

Garo Hills
Garo Hills Are In The S.w. Corner Of The Province Of Assam, Lying Between Lat. 25° 9' And 26° V N., And Long. 89° 52' And 91° 3' E. Tho Principal Ranges Are The Tura And Arbela Hills, Which Run East And West, Some Of The Tum Peaks Rising To ...

Garuda
Garuda, A Demigod Of The Hindus, With The Head And Wings Of A Bird, And The Body, Legs, And Arms Of A Man. He Is The Son Of Kasyapa And Vinata, The Brother Of Aruna, And The Vahan Or Vehicle Of Vishnu, When High On He Rides.' As Aruna, The ...

Gaura
Gaura, A Designation Of One Of The Two Great Divisions Of The Brahmans Or The Five Gauras, Also To Ono Of The Five, The Brahmans Of Bengal Proper, Who Are Distinguished Again As Varendriya, Rarhiya, Satshati, And Vaidika Brahmans. The Two First, From Their Being Settled In The Several Portions ...

Gaya
Gaya, A Town In Bengal, In Lat. 24° 48' 44" N., And Long. 85° 3' 16" E., On The Right Bank Of The River Phalga; It Has A Population Of 66,843, And Is The Chief Town Of A British Revenue District Of The Same Name. It Is In Two Portions, ...

Gayatri
Gayatri. From The Sanskrit Goi, To Sing, An Invocation Used By Hindus As A Prayer. That Usually Alluded To Under This Term Is Considered To Be The Most Sacred Verse In The Vedas. In The Nature-worship Of The Vedas, The Sun Was Worshipped Under The Designation Savitri. This Prayer Is ...

Geography
Geography Of India, In Ancient Times, Be Came Slowly Known To The Learned Inen Of The West. In The Centuries Immediately Preceding The Christian Era, The Conquests Of Alexander Threw Open The Interior Of Asia As Far As The Indus And Afghanistan, And Greek Colonies Bear Hig The Conqueror's Name ...

Geology
Geology Of India Has Been Summarized, During The 19th Century, By Mr. James Calder, Captain Newbold Of The Madras Arniy, Surgeon Carter Of The Bombay Army ; And Lastly, And In The Highest Sense, In A Joint Work By Messrs. H. B. Medllcott, M.a., And W. T. Blanford, F.r.s. Its ...

Georgia
Georgia, A Rnssian Province Extending From Lat. 39° To 44° N., And Long. 371° To 50° E., Con Sisting, With The Exception Of Daghistan, Of All Russia.n Territory S. Of The Caucasus. It Is 417 Miles Long, 280 Miles Broad, And With An Area Of 56,007 Square Miles ; Population ...

Gerbillus Indicus
Gerbillus Indicus. Blyth. Jerboa Rat. G. Liardwickii, Gray. G. Cirrieri, Waterhozae. Jhenku Indur, . . Beng. Yeri Yellca Of Waddars. Mita Ilei, . . . . Can. Tel Yellca Of . . Ysvadi. Hurna Mus, . . Hum. The India Jerboa Rat Of All India And Ceylon Is Of The ...

Ghat Hind
Ghat. Hind. A Term Employed In India To Designate A Ferry Or Landing Place On A River, Or A Quay Or Wharf ; Also A Range Of Hills, Or The Scarped Wall Of A Table-land, Or The Defile Or Pass Leading Througb Such. The Western Ghats Or Syhadri Range Extend ...