BALUCHISTAN, as known to Europeans, is partly Persian territory, and in part under the rule of the Khan of Kalat. Its territorial divisions have been already noticed under that heading ; what remains to be described here are the multi tudinous races who hsv farina resfylaa in i1 mountain valleys. According to the most recent authorities, it has an area of 140,000 square miles; 60,000 are under the Shah of Persia, in the Sarlind and Baluch, two mountain plateaux, and 80,000 under the Khan of Kalat, in the provinces of Saharawan, Jlialawan, Cutch Gandava or and Makran.
The territorial boundary between Brahui or Kalat Baluchistan and Persian Baluchistan has been defined ; but the inhabitants, particularly those in Makran and the Kohistan, are occupants of the two divisions.
Mr. Masson arranged the portion of Baluchistan subject to the Khan of Kalat into four sub divisions Western. I Draritinoe. I Central. Eastern.
Nushki. I Las. I Saharawan, Cutch Can Kharan. Iforntra. Kalat.
Mushki. Persani. Jhalawan, Harand on Panjgbur. the Indus.
Kej. Dajil on the Kolwab.
The people are partly pastoral and nomade, partly dwellers in towns, and, as indicated by their physical appearance, are of widely different races, who have pushed or been pushed forwards from the S., the W., and the N.W., into their present sites. In the khanate of confederate tribes are the Baluch tribes proper, the Rind, the Brahui, the Luntri, the Dehwar of the capital, the Jet or Jat of Cutch Gandava, the Babi, Arab races occupying the maritime provinces, the Afghans of Shal, and the Hindu residents of villages.
Baluch traditions trace their origin to Aleppo in Syria, from which they emigrated, passing through Persia to Cutchi, Makran, and Seistan. They entered Sind through the Bolan pass, and then broke into two factions, Lishari and Rind, and the Lishari successfully disputed the rights to the water of the Jhool river.
Dr. Cooke was inclined to the opinion that the Brahui were Tartar mountaineers who had gained a footing in the country, ultimately becoming the ruling race ; and that the Baluch came from the westward, but whether they were Seljuk Tartars or Arabs from Aleppo, he thinks is a matter of doubt. He considers the Hindus to have been the first colonizers of the upper part of the Brahui mountains, and that the Brahui gradually settled amongst them ' • that Schwa, a Hindu raja, called in the aid of these mountain shepherds against a horde of depredators from the western parts of Multan, Shikarpur, and Upper Sind ; and that the Brahui, having defeated and driven off these invaders, seized the government for themselves,— a chief of the name of Kumbar becoming Khan of Kalat, of whom the present khan is a lineal descendant.
The other race, the Baluch, he says, ascribe their origin to the earliest Muhammadan invader of Persia, and are very desirous of being supposed to be of Arab extraction. They spurn the idea that they are derived from one stock with the Afghans. The affinity of the Baluchiki to the Persian language favours their tradition that they came from the westward ; to support which, also, we see that the majority of the Baluch still dwell on the western frontier.
Sir Henry Rawlinson says the Persians regard the Baluch as descended from Belus, king of Babylon. It has been said that Baluchistan was first applied to the territory by Nadir Shah ; but Ibn Hanka', in the 10th century? says, 'The Balonjes are in the desert of Mount Kefes, and Kefes, in the Parsi language, is Kouje, and they call these two people Koujea and Baloujes.' The Brahui are the dominant race. From their physical appearance, their language, and the Rites which they occupy, together with their tradi tions, they appear to have been a nation of Tartar mountaineers, who settled at a very early period in the southern parts of Asia, where for many centuries they lived an ambulatory life in khels or societies, headed and governed by their own chiefs and laws ; and at length they became incorporated, and obtained their present footing at halat and throughout Baluchistan. Their pursuits and ways of domestic life afford reason for believing that they were originally moun taineers ; and some amongst them affirm that the very name demonstrates this by its signification, being a compound of an affix Doan, and Itoh, a word said to mean a hill. This tradition is sup ported by the collateral evidence of the Balueh being called in one quarter of the country Narui, lowlanders,' i.e. literally 'not hillmen,' a name they received front the Brahui when they came amongst them, and evinced a preference for the Champaign districts.