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tribes, chinese, millions, miau, mongolia and sifan

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CHINA has an area of 11,555,764 square kilo metres. Its emperor rules over 371 millions of Mongoloid races, viz. Chinese proper 350 millions, and 21 millions Tibetans, people in Formosa, Tungus, Manchu, Mongol, Kalmuk, Buriat, and Uzbak, in Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, Zangaria, and East Turkestan ; and he claims tribute from several semi-independent states. Its dynasties have ruled through 4000 years, and the territorial distinctions—China proper and the Chinese empire —have existed from the earliest periods of their history.

Among the tributaries are those of Inner and Outer Mongolia, of Ulia-Sutai and Tsing-Hai, or Koko-Nor ; and the tribes acknowledging the sway of China are classed as Inner and Outer Mongolians. Inner Mongolia lies between the desert of Gobi and the continuous frontier of Manchuria and China. The Outer Mongolians are Kalkas of different tribes. Among the tribes and remnants of tribes are the Shumet of Shansi beyond the wall ; Chahar, Bargou, Eluth, Solon, Taguri, Orunchun, Oiler, Ilassack, Yu - inuh, Tasting or T'sang, and Sang-ting.

The Chinese proper are of a yellow colour, but brown and sometimes a maroon tint are seen. Their face is broad and flat, the cheek-bones pro jecting, irides black, eyes oblique, beard scanty, stature above that of the Malay and Tibetan. They are skilful, enterprising, and self-reliant; emigrate with confidence, and are numerous in the islands of the Archipelago, the Indian Ocean, and America.

They have made many great discoveries in the arts, but they do not advance beyond a certain grade of intellectual development.

Their many millions belong to about 400 sing or claps, and those of the same sing are relatives, descended from the same ancestor, and bound to help one another. With the nation, the idea of the family is the grand principle that serves as the basis of society, of which the emperor is the head. The poor, and all who are not well-to-do, rarely use any kind of animal food. In the midland and southern provinces, the diet consists of plain boiled rice, with a relish of pickled fish or vegetables, salted eggs, and curd made of lentils, etc. When

meat can be afforded, pork is always the favourite dish, and amongst the higher classes, mutton, poultry, venison, or game ; with such delicacies as beche-de-iner, seaweed, sharks'-fin jelly, fish, the edible swallow's nest, ducks' tongues, pigeons' and plovers' eggs. Weak tea is their great liquid. Spirits are rarely used.

Yunnan province, in the extreme S.W., is in habited by many tribes. Amongst them, the Lo lo of different clans, the Pai-yi, the Pen-ti, the Min-kya. Also, in the mountain ranges which separate China and Burma, are the Mousse, whose women wear huge silver ornaments. To their west are the Lissu tribe, in the tract between the Lan-tsang-keang and the Lo-keang or Salwin. And in addition to these, on the borders, are the Sifan, Meau-tsze, Pa-e, Ho-nhi, Khato, Shen-tsen, and other tribes.

Within the borders lying in the southern and western provinces, parts of the Chinese empire,— Hu-kwang, Sze-chucn, Yunnan, Kwei-chau. and Kwang-si,—are various tribes, known as the Miau, Yam, Tung, and Keh-lau, who arc reckoned by the Chinese as Miau or barbarians. Some of them in the recesses of the mountains, still unsubdued, are styled the Sang Allan ; but the subdued tribes paying tribute are called Shuh-Miau. Many of the wild Miau live in Kai-li, Tai-hung, Hwang niu, and Shi-ping.

Sifan, Kham, Miau, Tzu, Yeh, Jen Mantzu, and Ichia, in Chinese phraseology all mean various degrees of savagery or barbarity. The rude Tibetan tribes of nomade and predatory habits are chiefly known in Tibet under the generic name of Kham ' • it corresponds to the Sifan of China.

The Aliao-tse or Miau-tse, occupying the high lands of the southern half of the Chinese empire, nearly a 'hundred in number, are regarded as aborigines, and are said to belong to the Thai group. They are cultivators, rear the silk-worm, forge iron, and work iu other metals, are weavers. traders, fowlers, fishers, herdsmen, and some of them highly predatory.

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