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locust, red, south, locusts, acrydium, joel and species

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In 1861, in rent-free lands in Khurda, belong ing to the temple of Jag,anath, the rice crop was nearly destroyed by a small green Acrydium about an inch in length, called Jhintiki by the Uriya. But history is full of accounts of the destruction caused by this plague, and one feature appears in nearly all the descriptions, the simul taneous death of whole flights, and pestilence ensuing on the putrefaction of their bodies. So Joel, 'But I will remove far off from you the northern army, and his stink shall come up, and bis ill-savour shall come up, because he hath done great things' (Joel ii. 20). Joel i. 3, 4, and ii. 3, writes of the locusts' ravages, ' Let your children tell their children, and their children another generation. That which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten.' The Phyraatea punctata is a large, beautiful locust, with scarlet abdomen, and yellow and bronze above, which occasionally causes great injury. Mr. Nietner says they do not touch the Illuk grass of Ceylon, Saceharum Konigii, Ref:, and seem only to attack cultivated plants. At Tangalle they destroyed tobacco plantations, and the larvae and puixe are as destructive as the perfect insects.

It is the Acrydium rnigratorium which, at intervals, devastates Africa and the south of Asia, and Gryllus gregarius is that of Sinai. Aery dium (CEdipoda) migratorinm, which occurs in Africa and the south of Asia, is greenish, with transparent elytra, of a dirty grey, whitish wings, and pink legs. They have the power of inflating themselves with air, and of travelling about 18 miles a day. The genus Acrydium of Latreille may be distinguished from (Edipoda by the presence of a large and prominent tubercle on the prmsternum, or between the two fore legs, by the one central ocellus instead of three dis posed and by the deep transverse strim of the prothorax. A. peregrinum, Olivier, has been described by that author in his Voyage dans l'empire Othoman, and by M. Audinet Serveille in his treatise on the Orthoptera, forming part of the Nouvelles Suites 1 Buffon. This author described a yellow variety from specimens taken in Senegal, and the red one from Mount Sinai,—a wide distribution. Both varieties occur in India • some from Raniganj show no trace of red, while in those ordinarily described, red is the predominant colour. Serveille figured the red

variety in his 12th plate, fig. 3. He quotes from the work of Olivier, previously named, a descrip tion of the habits of this species. Accompanying the burning south winds in Syria, he says, clouds of locusts (A. peregrinum) arrive from the interior of Arabia and the south of Persia, causing a devastation as complete and almost as rapid as that produced on Europe by the most violent hail storms. It is difficult to express the effect of the sight of the whole atmosphere filled on every side, and to an immense height, with an innumerable quantity of these insects, moving in slow and uniform flight, with a noise like that of rain, the sky darkened, and the light of the sun diminished. In one instant the flat roofs of the houses, the streets, and the fields were covered with locusts, and in two days they had destroyed nearly all the foliage ; but fortunately their life was but short, and they seemed to have emigrated only to reproduce themselves and die. For some days afterwards the fields were covered with their bodies.

The Acrydium lineole, which is sold for food in the markets of Baghdad, and the CEdipoda migra toria, extending its ravages from Tartary to Central Africa, and from Paris to Isfahan, are the only well-known migratory species ; but local species sometimes multiply to such an extent as to cause infinite damage.

Maig and Malakh are Persian names for a locust, which the Arabs most commonly call Jarad. The kind, blown over, from the opposite coast of Arabia to Bushahr, the Persians styled Malakh daryai or the sea-locust, and the Arabs, Jarad-ul-bahr, in the same sense. Bochart has enumerated various Hebrew and Arabic names for the locust in his elaborate Heirozoicon (lib. vi. cap. i. et seq.), but does not mention the above Persian names, neither does he remark that in the dialect of Misr or Egypt, those Jarad-ul bahr or sea-locusts, above noticed, are called Faridi, according to the MS. Burhan-i-Katiah. Zakaria Kazvini divides the locusts into two classes, like horsemen and footmen, mounted and pedestrian, which will call to, the recollection of the Biblical reader some passages from Joel and the Apocalypse. Forskal calls the locust which infests Arabia, Gryllus gregorius, and thinks it to be different from that which is called by Linnzaus, migratorius.

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