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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 2

Circassia
Circassia Is The Cherkess Of Asiatics. It Is A Mountainous _country In The S.e. Corner Of Europe, On The Northern Face Of The Caucasus, Lying Between Lat. 50' To 45° 20' N., And Long. To 47° 20' E., About 550 Miles Long And 75 Miles Broad ; Area, 40,000 Square ...

Clements R Markham
Markham, Clements R., C.b., F.r.s., In Early Life Was A Midshipman In The British Navy, And Served In The Arctic Expedition Of 1850-51. He Was For Twenty Years In The India Home Office, Serving In The Geographical Department Front 18(37 To 1877, Where He Had Opportunities For Promoting The Well-being ...

Cochin China Annan
Annan, Cochin-china, Kambogia, Laos, Siam. —around The Borders Of British India, In The N.w., The N.e., S.e., And E., Is An Ethnical Group, Which Contains The Tibetans, The Nepal Tribes, Several Nationalities Of The Sub Himalayan Range, The Burmese, The Siamese, The Natives Of Pegu, The Kambogians, The Cochin Chinese, ...

Como
Como. In 1861, In Rent-free Lands In Khurda, Belong Ing To The Temple Of Jag,anath, The Rice Crop Was Nearly Destroyed By A Small Green Acrydium About An Inch In Length, Called Jhintiki By The Uriya. But History Is Full Of Accounts Of The Destruction Caused By This Plague, And ...

Coorg Or
Coorg Or Kodaga Is A British Province To The West Of Mysore, Between Lat. 11° 55' And 12° 50' N., And Long. 25' And 70° 14' E. It Is Go Miles Long By 40 Broad, And Its Area Is 1583 Square Miles, With A Population Of 178,302, Of Whom 77,863 ...

Eastern Asia
Eastern Asia And Its Inhabitants Have Received The Attention Of Many Eminent Ethnologists,— Bennett, Bikinore, Burns, Crawfurd, Earl, Keane, Jagor, Giglioli, Hogendorp, Lesson, Logan, Lub Bock, Huxley, Macgillivray, De Marne, Marsden, Moor, Newbold, Norris, Peschel, Raffles, St. John, Teraminck, And Wallace,—almost All Of Whom Have Resided There, Some Of Them ...

Edward William Lane
Lane, Edward William, An Arabia Scholar, Was The Third Son Of Theophilus Lane, A Prebendary Of Hereford, And Of Sophia Gardiner, A Niece Of The Artist Gainsberough. Lie Was Born In 1801, And Died In 1876. Lie Visited Egypt First In 1825, And Stayed There For A Time, Spent Partly ...

Egypt
. . . Egypt. Maig Malakh, . Pers. Sautercl1c, . . . Fr. Maltich-i-halal, . . , Heushrecke, . . . Ger. Malakh-i-haram, . „ Ophlomachez, . . Gr. Malakh-i-daryai, . „ Chargol, Arbeh, . . Her. Logosta, . . . Port. Tiri. Tiddi, . . Hum. Langosta, . . ...

Formosa
Formosa, Called Tai-wun By The Chinese, Is A Large Island In The China Sea, Separated From China By A Stormy Strait, 80 Or 90 Miles Wide. It Stretches As Far North As Lat. 25° N., And This Is The Most Northerly Limit Of The Malay Language, Malay Words Being Found ...

Francis Hastings
Hastings, Francis, Second Earl Of Moira, Afterwards Created Marquess Of Hastings, G.c.b., Assumed Charge Of The Office Of Governor-general Of India, 4th October 1813, And Held It Till His Re-embarkation, 9th January 1823. During His Tenure Of Office, He Took The Field In Person, On The 18th October 1817, Against ...

General Constantine Kaufmann
Kaufmann, General Constantine, A Great Commander Of The Russian Forces In Central Asia ; Obiit 1882. In The Successive Campaigns Which He Conducted Against Bokbara, Against Khiva , And Against Khokand, General Kaufmann Greatly Increased The Asiatic Dominions And Influence Of Russia, While Narrowing The Zone Of Debateable Ground Which ...

General Irjames Neill
Neill, General Irjames, K.c.b., An Officer Of The Madras Fusiliers, Who Served In The Second Burmese War, And Distinguished Himself During The Mutiny, Where He Commanded His Regiment. He Took Possession Of The Railway To Reach And Save Benares, And He Then Advanced To Allahabad. He Was The First To ...

H
H. This Letter In The English Language, As An Aspirate, Shows That The Vowel Following It Must Be Pronounced With A Strong Guttural Emission Of Voice, As In Hammer, House, Humidity, Helm, His Tory, Hyson ; Hut In A Few English Words. It Is Quiescent, As In Hour, Honour. There ...

Hafiz
Hafiz, A Lyric Poet, Native Of Shiraz, Author Of The Dewan-i-hafiz. Many Of His Poems Lava Been Translated ; One By Sir William Jones, And Which Perhaps Surpasses The Original, Commences With 'sweet Maid, If Thou Wouldst Charm My Sight, And Bid These Arms Thy Neck Enfold ; That Rosy ...

Hail
Hail. In Exodus Ig. 24, It Is Mentioned That There Was Hail, And Fire Mingled With The Hail, Very. Grievous, Such As There Was None Like It In All The Land Of Egypt Since It Became A Nation. Hail Storms Of India Occur In Very Limited Patches,. And Seldom Last ...

Hair
Hair. Haar, . Da., Du., Ger. Voioss, . . . . Rus. Cheveux, Poil, . . Fr. Kesa, . . . Sansk. Bal, . . . Gus., Hind. Cabellos Sr Pelo, It. Sr. Har, Sw. Capilli, Pelles, . Eat. Mairu, . . . Tam. Ruma, Rula, . Malay. Ventrukulu, • ...

Haj Arab
Haj. Arab. A Pilgrimage By A Mahomedan To Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Sinai, Etc. ; Hence 'the Title Haji, A Pilgrim. Hajjat, A Woman Pilgrim. The Pilgrimage Of Mahornedans To Mecca—en Joined By The Koran (sura, X_xii. 28)—is Incumbent On All Men And Women Who Have Sufficient Means To Meet The ...

Halcyonide
Halcyonide, The Kingfisher Family Of Birds, Of The Tribe Fissirostres, Order Insessores. It Has Two Sub-families, The Alcedininm And Halcyoninm. Sub-fam. Halcyoninze. Halcyon Amauropterus, The Brown Winged Kingfisher Of Bengal, Arakau, And Tenasserirn. Halcyon Fulgidus, Gould, Is A Very Beautiful Kingfisher Of Lomhok. It Lives In Thickets Away From Water, ...

Halicore Dugong Cum
Halicore Dugong. Cum Trichcchua Dugong, Omel. Ii. Indicus, Owen. I Falicoro Edam, //t. I Dugungus Indicus, Ham. Ii. Indira, Dem. Indian Dugong, . . Eno. Duyung, . . . Malay. Dugong Lamantin, „ Talla-maha, . . Swum Le Dugong Des Indes, Fa. The Dugong Is An Inhabitant Of The Narrow ...

Han Lin Yuen
Han-lin-yuen, The Imperial Academy Of China, Founded By Kablai Khan. For 600 Years The - Small Body Of Han-lin Scholars Have Held Their Sessions Undisturbed By Dynastic Revolutions Or Political Outbreaks. No Learned Society In The World Can Compete With It In Age Or In Its Intense Exclusiveness. The Examinations ...

Hand
Hand. Yadd, . . . . Arab. Manus, . . . Lat. Main, Fr Dast, Pers. Ilat'h, . . . Hind. Kai, . . . Tam., Tel. Mano, . . . . Ir. Sr. The Figure Of The Hand, Amongst All Nations, Is Utilized As An Emblem. The Hand Is ...

Handkerchief
Handkerchief. Mouchoir, . . Fr. I Fuzzoletto, . . . It. Tuch, Schnupftuch, Ger. Panullo, . . . . Sp. Hurnal, . . . . Iiind. Mahrama, Tunx. Handkerchief Pieces Form A Considerable Article Of Manufacture And Traffic In Southern India. Handkerchiefs, Coloured, From Madras, Red From Sydapet And Ventapollem, ...

Hara Kiri
Hara. Kiri Is From Ham, Japanese, The Belly And Kiri, Root Form Of Kiru, To Cut; A Self-immola Tion By Disembowelling, A Mode Of Self-executio] Adopted In Japan. Practically, They Make Only Small Wound In The Belly, And In The Act Of A Doing A Relative Or Other Person, Whom ...

Hardwar
Hardwar, Ancient Historical Town And Place Of Hindu Pilgrimage In Saharunpur District, N.w. Provinces, Lat. 29 57' 30" N., Long. 78° 12' 52" E. ; Population (1872), 4800. It Was Originally Known As Kapila Or Gupila, From The Sage Kapila, Who Passed His Life In Religious Austerities At The Spot ...

Hasan
Hasan And Husain, Two Sons Of All By His Wife Fatima, Daughter Of Mahomed. After Ali's Death, Hasan And Husain Went To Reside At Medina. Hasan Was Poisoned There, A.d. 659, By An Emissary Of The Khalif. The Poison Was Placed In Hasan's Way By His Wife Zainab. And Several ...

Hasan Ganga
Hasan Ganga. In A.d. 1347, Four Years Before The Death Of Muhammad Taghalaq, Hasan Gangs, An Officer Of High Station In The Dekhan, Headed A Successful Revolt Against His Master, And Established What Was Known As The Bahmani Dynasty Of The Dekhan, Fixing His Capital At Kul Btirga. Ilis Descendants ...

Hatching Fowls Eggs
Hatching Fowls' Eggs By Artificial Heat, Though Only Obscurely Described By Ancient Authors, Appears To Have Been Common In Egypt In Very Remote Times. The Building In Which The Proems Is Now Performed Is Called Maamal-el-tirakk In Chusan The Hatching-house Of Ducks Is A Shed, The Roof Thickly And Compactly ...

Haul Arab
Haul. Arab. Power. La Haul Wa In Quwat Ila Ba Allah, There Is No Power Nor Virtue But In God,—a Solemn Invocation Of Mahomedans. . Hauran Is A Term Applied To Any Solitude, Whether Barren Or Fertile, And Sometimes Ap Plied To Extensive Pasture Lands. Hauran Is The Auranitis Of ...

Hawking
Hawking Is A Pastime To Which Several Asiatic Races Are Addicted. The Employment Of Trained Hawks May Be Traced To An Exceedingly Remote Antiquity ; And Mr. Layard Found A Bas Relief At Khorsabad, In Which A Falconer Is Bearing A Hawk On His Wrist. The Bedouins Of Mesopotamia Are ...

Hawks
Hawks, Kites, Etc. Faucon, Fnhalcon, Sp Habicht, Falke, . Ger. Atmaja, . . Tome. Falcone, . . . . It. Eagles, Hawks, Kites, Etc., Are All Classed By Naturalists Under The Sub-families Accipitrinm Or Hawks, Aquilinm Or Eagles, Buteoninas Or Buzzards, Falconinas Or Falcons, And Milvinm Or Kites, Etc., All ...

Hazara
Hazara, According To Bellew, Is From Hazar, A Thousand ; It Means A Division, A Disposition By Thousands, And Is So Applied By The Persians, By The Mountaineers Of Ghor, And By The Afghans, To The Mongol Tribes Occupying The Mountain Country Of Ghor, Lying Between Kabul And Herat In ...

Hebrew
Hebrew. The Language Of Tyre And Sidon Was Pure Old Hebrew. Abram Was A Hebrew, Who Spoke Aramaic As His Mother Tongue, But Migrated From The Trans-euphrates Country, And Adopted The Language Of Canaan. His First-born Son Was Sidon. 1400 Years After Joseph, Canaan Was Occupied By The Israelite, Edomite, ...

Hed Ya
Hed-ya. Mann. A Drover Or Cattle-dealer. . Hedy° Mum, A Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Natural Order Zingibetacete. 28 Species Occur In The East Indies, Some Of Them With Sweet Smelling Flowers. Hedychium Coronarium, Linn. Doolal Champa, ' . Beng. I Ganda Suli, . . Malay. Khet-lan-thm, . Bum. ...

Hedges
Hedges Are Not Used For The Cold-weather Crops Of India. For The Garden Crops, Sugar-cane, Betel Vine, And Others, The Large Species Of Sac Char= Are Used. Quick Hedges Are Formed In Japan Of The Lycium Japonicum, Citrus Trifoliate, Gaidenia, Species Of Viburnum, Thuja, Spirma ; And Arbours Are Made ...

Hemileia Vastatrix
Hemileia Vastatrix, The Coffee-leaf Disease, Or Leaf-fungus, Has For Several Years Seriously Affected The Coffee Trees Of The Island Of Ceylon. Though Requiring Careful Inspection For Its Detection, It Was Present Upon All The Coffee Trees Examined About 1879. With The Help Of The Microscope, It Is Found At All ...

Hemionitis Cordifolia
Hemionitis Cordifolia. In Tenasserim, Tear The Sea-shore, This Species Of Mule Fern, With Cordate Fronds, Is Sometimes Seen.—dr. Mason. Hemiptera, An Order Of Insects ; Several Tenera Occur In India ; Amongst Them— Can A. Pachycoridle, Dail. Cantuo, Bginot Anti Serv.; Callidea, Lap. Ram. Eurygasteridre, Dail. Trigonosoma, Lap. Ram. Plataspidm, ...

Hemp
Hemp. Cannabis Linn. Var. C. Indica. Kinnub, . . Arab. Kannabis (canvas), . Gr. Ma, Lu-sung-ma, Chin. Canape, It Ta-ma, Ya-ma, . . „ Ganja, . . . Malay. Hwang-ma, . . . , Bhang, Chang, • Pers. Hamp, . . . . Dan. Konope, . . . . Pol. ...

Herba Bengalo
Herba Bengalo. Mention Is Made In Several Old Works Relating To India, Of Cloths Having Been Made Of A Plant Called Herba Ben Gal°, Which Appears To Be Now Unknown As A Material Of Manufacture. Linschoten, Who Visited Bengal In 1599, Is One Of The Earliest Travellers Who Notice It ...

Herdsmen
Herdsmen In Central Asia, And South To The Arabian Sea, Are A Large Mass Of The Populations Of Their Respective Regions,—many Of Them In Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Being Purely Nomamles, Dwelling In Tents, And Migrating With The Seasons; Others Of Them In British India Camping Out Only In The ...

Herons
Herons Are Classed By Naturalists In The Family Ardeidm, Gen. Ardea, Ardeola, Herodias, Nycticorax. Those Of The E. Indies Are— Arden, Goliath, Tenon., The Great Heron. A. Sumatrana, Raffles, The Dusky Grey Heron. A. Cinerea, Linn., The Blue Heron. A. Purpurea, Linn., The Purple Heron. Nycticorax Grisens, Linn., Night Heron. ...

Herpestes
Herpestes. Illiger. Mungoose, Maugouste. Ichneumon, Lacepede. I Mangusta, The Herpestes Is A Genus Of Digitigrade Carni ' Vorous Mammalia; And The Egyptian Species, The Ichneumon, Has Been Noticed By Writers From The Earliest Times, Its Combats With Snakes And Its Alleged Attacks On Crocodiles Having Been Men Tioned By Aristotle, ...

Hes Masah Arab
Masah. Arab., Hes. Anointing, A Form Of Installation Practised In Europe, But Which Seems To Have Been Of Eastern Origin. Masih Of The Arabs Forms The Hebrew Messiah, Meaning The Anointed One. In Rajputana, Anointing Appears To Have Been In All Ages The Mode Of Installation. The Unguent On This ...

Heynea A1ifinis
Heynea A1i'f'inis. Ass. Ii, Trijuga, Roxb. This Is A Very Ornamental Middling-sized Tree Of Nepal, Common In Many Localities On The Western Mountains Of The Madras Presidency, From 2000 Feet Upwards ; At Conoor, 6000 Feet, Abundant ; Bolampatty Valley, 3000 Feet, Very Abundant. H. Quinquijuga, R., Is A Native ...

Hides
Hides. Hud, . . . Dan., Sw. Bahllang, Kulit, Malay. Huiden, . . . . Ddt. Penes, . . . . Port, Peaux, Fa Koshi, . . . . Rue. Haute, . . . . Ger. Charms, . . . Sansk. Chamra, . . . Hind. Pellejos, Pieles, . . ...

Hieronimo Di Santo Stefano
Hieronimo Di Santo Stefano, A Geno Ese ; Visited India About 1494-99 As A Merchant Adventurer. At Cairo He Laid In A Stock Of Coral Beads And Other Wares, And Passed Down The Nile To Cane (keneh), From Which He Travelled By Land Through The Egyptian Desert For 7 Days ...

Hill States
Hill States Is A Term By Which The British Designate Several Independent And Feudatory Kingdoms In The Himalayas. Nepal Is The Largest Of These ; It Is Independent, But Has Treaties With British India. Sirmur Or Arahan.—in Recognition Of The Ser Vices Rendered By Raja Shamsher Purouss Durina. The 1857 ...

Hill Tribes
Hill Tribes Is A General Term By Which The British Designate Collectively The Numerous Un Civilised Tribes Who Inhabit The Mountain Ranges And Higher Hills In British India And Along Its Borders. Most Of Them Are Wholly Illiterate. Dr. W. W. Hunter Has Mentioned That- In The North-! Vest Provinces ...

Hill Trout
Hill Trout Of Hindustan Is No Trout, But A Large Bony Fish Of A Silver-grey Spotted With Black ; Will Eat Can Swallow ; Is Often Taken With An Infant Brother While Spinning For His High-caste Neighbours, With An Artificial Minnow Of Glass, With A Piece Of Rag Or Paper, ...

Himalaya Mountains
Himalaya Mountains Comprise A System Of Stupendous Ranges, With The Loftiest Peaks In The World. They Extend Continuously For A Distance Of 1500 Miles Along The Northern Frontier Of British India, From The Indus To The Gorge Where The Dihong Bursts Through Their Main Axis, Thus Embracing The Meridians 75° ...

Hind Kiiutbah Arab
Kiiutbah. Arab., Hind., Pers. A Public Prayer Or Discourse Pronounced In The Muham Madan Mosques During Divine Service. It Is Also Pronounced Once Yearly At The Eed-gah, On The Festival At The Close Of The Rainzati. But From The Early Days Of Muhammadanism The Reading Of The Khutbah Has Been ...

Hind Kimkhab
Kimkhab, Hind., Corruptly Kincob, A Fabric Of Silk With Gold Or Silver In Woven Pattern ; Silk Brocade, Worked In Gold And Silver Flowers. The Costly And Superb Fabrics Of Cloths Of Gold And Silver Or The Kimkbab, And The Classes Of Washing Satins Or Mushru And Hemru, Even If ...

Hind Las
Las, Hind., Of Jhelum District, Inferior Land. Las, A Section Of Baluchistan Bordering The Arabian Sea. Its Ruler Is Styled The Jam. Las Is Separated From Lower Sind And The Indus Delta By The Hala Mountains. It Is A Small Maritime Province, 100 Miles Long And 80 Miles Broad, And ...

Hind Mahdi Arab
Mahdi. Arab., Hind. A Guide ; According To The Shiah Sect Of Muhammadans, The Twelfth And Last Of The Imams Or Successors Of Ali. The Mandavi Part Of The Shiah Sect Believe Him To Be Still Alive. The Chair Mandavi Believe That He Has Been On, But Has Disappeared From, ...

Hindi
Hindi Is A Term Used All Over Northern India, To Denote The Vernacular Tongue Of The Districts. Speaking Generally, The Whole Of Upper India, Including The Panjab, But Exclusive Of Bengal, May Be Said To Be Possessed By One Language, The Hindi. This Range, Therefore, Would Include All The Rajput ...

Hindustan
Hindustan Is A Term Which The People Of Europe Apply To British India Generally. To The People Of India, However, And To Europeans Resid Ing There, The Name Is Restricted To That Part Of The Country Which Lies Between The Himalaya And The Vindhya Mountains, And From The Panjab In ...