Haar, . Da., DU., GER. VOIOSS, . . . . Rus.
Cheveux, Poil, . . FR. Kesa, . . . SANSK.
Bal, . . . Gus., HIND. Cabellos Sr Pelo, IT. Sr. Har, Sw.
Capilli, Pelles, . EAT. Mairu, . . . TAM.
Ruma, Rula, . MALAY. Ventrukulu, • . TEL.
Ranbut, Tailhan,„ Sach, TURK. Cabello, . . . . PORT.
With the exception of man, the exposed parts of the bodies of mammals are covered with hair. Hair is a considerable article of traffic. Goats' hair is largely exported from Bombay to England. The hair of the elephant's tail and the bristles of the; ild boar are utilized in India. The value of the exports of hair from India amounts to about £2000 annually, about 200 to 300 tons.
A remarkable command is given to the Israelites in Leviticus xix. 27 : Ye shall not round the corners of your head,' or, literally, Ye shall not go round,' i.e. with a razor, ' the sides of thy head.' The Septuagint renders this, Do not make Sisoen of the hair of your head.' Greek lexicographers say that Sisoen, though not a Greek word, means a lock, or circular portion of hair left unshaven, and consecrated to Saturn, the grandfather of Bacchus, who is thought to correspond with Siva. In some respects Saturn also resembles Siva. A recent commentator says on the above text, It seems probable that this fashion had been learned by the Israelites in Egypt, for the ancient Egyptians had their dark locks cropped short, or shaved with great nicety, so that what remained on the crown appeared in the form of a circle surrounding the head. Frequently a lock or tuft of hair was left on the hinder part of the head, the rest being cut round in the form of a ring, as the Turks, Chinese, and Hindus do at the present day.' Poole says ' the Gentiles cut their hair for the worship of devils or idols, to whom young men used to consecrate their hair, as Homer, Plutarch, and many others write' Professor Vitringa looks upon this manner of trimming the hair in a circular form, while the rest of the head is shaven, as a symbol of the sun equally diffusing his rays, which the ancients called his hair. The Romans are said to have worn the hair of the head uncut, either loose or bound behind in a knot, and con secrated it to Apollos.
Herodotus says that the Arabians cut their hair in such a manner, that the circumference of their head is found to be round all about as if they had been cut with a bowl, in imitation of Bacchus, and in honour of him. He says also that the Macians, a people of cut their hair round so as to leave a tuft on the top of the head. We learn from Homer that it was customary for parents to dedicate to some god the hair of their children, which they cut off when they came to manhood. Achilles, at the funeral of Patroclus, cut off his golden locks, which his father had dedicated to the river-god Sperchias. From Virgil it appears that the topmost lock of hair was dedicated to the infernal gods. In Athens it is said Hercules and Apollos were the chief deities selected for dedi cating the hair,—to the first by the humbler part of the community, and . the latter by the more wealthy. Tertullian speaks of an extra
ordinary rite about the dedication of the hair of infants, which was practised even before they well had any hair, and that cut off when they were named.
The ancient Greeks, in laying out their dead, placed an obolus, a Greek coin, in the mouth to pay Charon's fare across the rivers Styx and Acheron, and a cake made of flour and honey to appease Cerberus. Greek men cut off their hair when they obtained the age of puberty, and dedicated it to some deity. Theseus is said to have repaired to Delphi to perform this ceremony, and to have con secrated his shorn locks to Apollo. After this it was again allowed to grow long, and only cut off as a sign of mourning. Thus, at the funeral of Patroclus (Iliad, xxiii.) the friends of Achilles cut off their hair, and 'On the come their scattered locks they throw.' In some parts of Greece, however, it was customary to wear the .hair short, and to allow it (Cassandr. 973) to grow long when in mourning. • 'Neglected hair shall now luxurious grow, And by its length their bitter passion show.' Hindu men, on the death of a relative, abstain from shaving, and the Burmese dead have a coin placed with them for the spirit-world.
The women of nearly all the oriental races wear long hair, differently braided. The men of Baluchistan and Afghanistan shave the front, but wear hair long on the back and sides of the head. Mahomedans of India as a rule shave their heads. Hindu men also shave, leaving only a scalp-lock on the crown. This scalp-lock is noticed by Martial, Seneca, and Tacitus as worn by German races. Brahman women, on the demise of their husbands, have their heads shaved.
In Luristan, the women, on the death of their men relatives, cut off their hair, and hang' the locks around the tomb. The hair of Hindu women, and often also that of men, is frequently made a votive offering to their gods. Crowds of the Hindu pilgrims to Triputty and other holy places, both men and women, return with heads shaved. Hindu lads have their heads shaved. Nero placed his first beard in a jewelled box-, and dedicated it to Jupiter. Herodotus mentions (Melp. iv. c. 34) that the Dollen maidens used to cut off a lock of their hair before marriage, in memory of the Hyperborean virgins who died in Delos. In some tribes of the Orang Benua of the Malay Peninsula, and among the Malay, it is customary to cut off a part of the bride's hair.
The Somali of the east of Africa change their hair into red by mixing it with lime. Amongst the blonde auburn tresses were most admired, and to obtain these, men steeped their hair in a powerful alkali, as the Somali now do. Mahomedans of India have black hair, occasion ally dye it red with henna or mehndi. The tuft of hair, or scalp - lock, Shik'ha, SANSK., D'zutu, TEL., Kudi mai, is worn by all who profess Hinduism, and it has been a subject of much dis cussion with Christian missionaries, whether, on conversion, the new Christian's scalp-lock should be removed.—De Bode, ii. 218-19; Newbold; Postans ; Lubbock.