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Haul Arab

hauran, called, south, batanna and iturea

HAUL. ARAB. Power. La haul wa in quwat ila ba Allah, There is no power nor virtue but in God,—a solemn invocation of Mahomedans. . HAURAN is a term applied to any solitude, whether barren or fertile, and sometimes ap plied to extensive pasture lands. Hauran is the Auranitis of Josephus, and the Iturea of St. Luke. The countries south of Damascus, viz. the Hauran, the rocky wilderness of the Ledja, and the moun tainous district lying east of the Jordan, collec tively speaking, formed the country which was first conquered by the Israelites before the sub jugation of the land of Canaan, and was allotted to the tribe of Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh. In the time of the Romans, nearly the whole was comprised under the district called Perna, which was itself divided into the six cantons of Abilene, Trachonitis, Iturea, Gaulon itis, Batanna, and Perna, strictly called ; to which some geographers have added Decapolis. Abilene was the most northern of these provinces, being situated between the mountains of Libanus and Anti-Libanus, and deriving its name from the city of Abila or Abela. Trachonitis was bounded by the desert on the east, Batanna on the west, Iturea on the south, and the country of Damascus on the north, and included the rocky district now called El Ledja. Iturea, on the east of Batanna, and to the south of Trachonitis, derived its name from Ietur, the son of Ishmael, and was called Auranitis, from the city of Auran, which latter appellation it still retains, under that of Hauran. Gaulonitis was a tract on the east side of the lake of Gennesareth and the river Jordan, which derived its name from Gaulan, the city of Og, king of Bashan. Batanna, the ancient kingdom

of Bashan, was situated to the north-east of Gaulonitis, and was celebrated for its excellent breed of cattle, its rich pastures, and for its stately oaks. A part of it is now called El Belka. Perna, in its strictest sense, included the southern part of the country beyond Jordan and Samaria.

In May the whole of the Hauran plain is covered with swarms of Bedouin wanderers from the desert, who come for water and pasturage during the summer months, and to obtain a pro vision of corn for the winter ; they remain till after September. If they are at peace with the pasha, they encamp generally amongst the villages near the springs or wells ; if at war with him, confine themselves to the district to the south of Boazra, towards Om-e-jaml and Jadheins, extending as far as Zerka. The Arabs of the Jabl Hauran (called the Ahl-ul-Jabl) and those of the Ledja seldom encamp beyond their usual limits ; they are kept in more strict dependence on the pasha than the other tribes. The Ahl-ul Jabl are the shepherds of the people of the plains, who entrust them with their flocks during the winter to pasture amongst the rocks and mountains. In spring the Arabs restore the flocks to their proprietors, receiving for their trouble one -fourth of the lambs and kids, and a like proportion of the butter made from the milk during the spring months. Those which are to be sold are taken to Damascus. The soil of the Hauran consists of a fine black earth, of great depth, but little cultivated.—Burekkardt Robinson's Travels.