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india, fibre, sunn, plant, jute, called, countries, cultivated, pat and russia

HEMP. Cannabis Linn.

Var. C. Indica.

Kinnub, . . ARAB. Kannabis (canvas), . GR.

Ma, Lu-sung-ma, CHIN. Canape, IT Ta-ma, Ya-ma, . . „ Ganja, . . . MALAY.

Hwang-ma, . . . , Bhang, Chang, • PERS. Hamp, . . . . DAN. Konope, . . . . POL.

Hinnep, Hinnup,. DUT. Canamo, . . PORT., SP.

Kinnup, . . . . , Konapli, Konopel, Res.

Chanvre, . Bhanga, Ganjika, SANSK.

Hanf, . . . GER. Hampa, . . . Sw.

In the export commerce of India, hemp is a tertn applied to the fibres of several distinct plants, all valuable as cordage materials ; and the Chinese terms, Ho-ma, Ta-ma, Ya-ma, and Hwang-ma, are fibres of urticaceous, malvaceous, and tiliaceous plants. But the true hemp of Europe is the fibre of the Cannabis sativa of botanists. It possesses a remarkably tough kind of woody tissue, capable of being manufactured into linen and cordage. It is an annual plant from 3 to 10 feet high, with the males and females on separate stems. It is difficult to say of what country the true hemp plant is a native,—Willdenow says Persia, Gmelin says Tartary, Thunberg found it in Japan ; so that the varieties produced by climate have by some been thought to be distinct species, the European being called C. sativa, and the Indian C. Indies. Ilerodotus mentions it as a Scythian plant. Bieber stein met with it in Tauria and the Caucasian region. It is well known. in Bokhars. and Persia, and is grown everywhere Ihniughout India, and in the Himalaya up to 10,000 feet. In European countries it is cultivated only for its ligneous fibre, so extensively employed in the manufacture of ropes, and of coarse hut strong kinds of cloth. It is cultivated in oriental countries to obtain the intoxicating leaves, called Ganja, from which bhang and subji or sidhi are produced, and for the resinous product called charms. The mode of cultivating is, however, different for each of its products. The plant requires exposure to light and air, and is therefore sown thin or transplanted out, when it is cultivated for its resinous and intoxicating secretion ; while the growth of fibre is promoted by shade and moisture, which are procured by thick sowing.

In Arabia, Egypt, and Turkey, the leaves used as an intoxicant are known as Hashish, and Hashish is a term of obloquy ; the plural Hashasin has been supposed by some writers to be the source of the word Assassin. For its fibre it is chiefly grown in Russia, and is sent to the other European countries for cordage, canvas, and towelling. The finest quality of hemp, and that which brings the highest price, being sold at 50s. per cwt. when the best Russia brings only 47s., comes from Italy ; though French, English, and Irish hemps are much esteemed. The Russian hemp grows best in a friable soil of moderate rich ness. At St. Petersburg hemp is assorted into clean hemp, or firsts ; outshot hemp, or seconds ; half cleaned hemp, or thirds ; and hemp codilla. Riga hemp is classed as rein or clean, outshot, and pass hemp. Particular care is taken to ship hemp and flax in fine dry weather, and to preserve it from damp by packing with mats ; for if either get wet, they are apt to heat, and to be totally spoiled.

The hemp imported into Great Britain from all countries, from 1877 to 1880, ranged from 1,204,036 to 1,320,731 cwt., of value from £1,684,377 to £2,072,040, almost all from Russia, Germany, Italy, and the Philippines ; from India, between the years 1874-1879, the raw fibres exported under the commercial designation of hemp, in quantity and in value only ranged thus,— Cwt. Rs. Cat. Rs.

1874-5, 80,050 6,66,539 1877-8, 55,312 5,76,911 1875-6, 75,878 6,28,604 1878-9, 45,628 4,62,334 1876-7, 85,207 7,58,856 1879-80, 42,202 4,03,076 But during the same period the annual exports from India of coir, hemp, and jute averaged about 280,000 tons, value £3,500,000, the coir and hemp being valued about £20 a ton, and jute £12 the ton.

Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), called also Brown hemp, Madras hemp, Indian hemp, Konkani hemp, Salsette hemp, Bombay hemp, Travancore flax, and by the vernacular names, Sam, Ghore-san, Sunn, Shanamoo, Kenna, Ambari, Taag, Wuckoo-nar, and Janapa-nar. It is the kind most generally cultivated all over India, on account of its fibre, and is that usually mentioned in the exports from Calcutta under the name of hemp, but also as sunn. The plant may be distinguished by its flowers being of a bright yellow colour, and of the form of the pea and of the laburmun, while the leaves are entire and lanceolate.

or Dekhani hemp (Hibiscus cannabinus), called in the languages of India, Mesta - pat, Nalkee, Pulooa, Sunni, Valaiti Sunn, Garnikura, Gongkura, Pooley-nammajii, Pundey, Pundrika, and Palungoo of Madras, is very generally culti vated all over India, and exported of very good quality from the west side. The fibre is like that of jute. It is often confounded with that of the sunn, as it is one of the brown limps of Bombay, though the two plants differ much from each other.

Jubbulpur hemp is established as an article of commerce in India, and highly esteemed by good judges in Britain.

Manilla hemp is from the Musa textilis, grown in the Philippines, and introduced into S. India by Major (now Sir George) Balfour. It is being imported into Great Britain in increasing quantities and value.

1877,332,304 cwt.2488,069I 1879,337,687 cwt. £434,037 1878,421,160 „ 551,856 I 1880,407,431 „ 622,776 A gigantic species of Cannabis hemp, growing from ten to fifteen feet in height, is in China a staple summer crop. This is chiefly used in making ropes and string of various sizes, such articles being in great demand for tracking the boats up rivers and in the canals of the country.

Jute is the fibre of Corchorus capsularis, and C. olitorius, and also known to the people as Pat, Koshta, Bhurtgee pat, Ghanalita pat, 'Putts, Singin-ganasha. It is now imported as jute, being largely used in Dundee.

Hemp seed and Oil, Ta - ma, Ho - ma - jin, Hwang - ma, CHIN. The small, shining, brittle achmnia of the Cannabis sativa, are albuminous and oily, and entirely devoid of all narcotic pro perties. They are crushed for oil, the Ganja yennai, TAMIL, in many parts ; in Russia, much used for burning in lamps.