KIIUTBAH. ARAB., HIND., PERS. A public prayer or discourse pronounced in the Muham madan mosques during divine service. It is also pronounced once yearly at the Eed-gah, on the festival at the close of the Rainzati. But from the early days of Muhammadanism the reading of the Khutbah has been a point regarding which the rulers and time people have entertained dissimilar views. It is pronounced from the miinbur or pulpit, which has three steps, and Umar fixed on the second step front which to speak it, praising Mahomed. This rite has ever been a cause of trouble. Scarcely had Mahomed left the scene when Ayzeed consented to three requests of Zain ul-Abidiu, but privately desired his own Syrian Khatib (priest) to read the Khutbah, and to offer up praises and eulogiums in the names of the descendants of Abu Soofean and Oomea. Accord ingly on Friday the Syrian Khatib read the Khut bah, and praised the race of Abu Soofean and Oomea, and spoke with contempt of the descend ants of the prophet. Usman fixed on the second or middle step of the mimbur front which the Khut bah was to be read. Since then Muhammadan rulers have claimed as royal prerogatives the right to coin, and to have the Khutbah read in their name. In British India, until the deposition of the emperor of Dehli, the Khutbah was read in his name. And, now, the congregation believe it to be in the name of the Sultan of Turkey. Jafar Sherif, author of the Qanun-i-Islam, says (p. 263), ' The Khatib (priest), after repeating two rukat prayers, alias shukrea, ascends to the second or , middle step of the mimbur, and, the congregation being seated, be reads the Khutbah, i.e. offers
glory to God, praises the prophet, and passes eulogiums on his companions. He then descends to the lowermost step, recounts the many virtues of the king, and offers up supplications on behalf of him. The king is he whose coin is current in the realm, and in whose name prayers are offered up after the Khutbah is read at mosques and feasts.' And here is the following note :—` At present (1832) it is in the name of the king of Dehli, but in the author's opinion erroneously, as, it should be in the name of the Honourable East India Company.' Lane says it is first a prayer for Mahomed, Ibrahim, the four khalifs, and the companions of the prophet, and: for El Hasan and El Husain, Fatima, etc., followed by a prayer for El Islam, and for the Sultan, son of the Sultan, etc.
All Muhammadans admit that the Friday Khutbah cannot be recited without the permission of the ruler.
There should, therefore, be in the Khutbah a prayer on behalf of the Empress Victoria, but it may be mentioned that although since the year 1834 the mints of British India have only issued coins bearing the names of the successive rulers of Great Britain, the Muhammadans of that country have never introduced the British ruler's name into the Khutbah, and Dr. Birdwood mentions, correctly, that until a very recent date the emperor of Dehli was the subject of the prayer.
Every Friday of the month of Ramzan the Khatib reads the Khutbah (sermon), which con tains praises and eulogiutns, and admonition and advice.—Herklots' Qanoon-i-Islam ; Lane.