JOSHI, limn., also called Jon, Jotisi, and Joti saru, is an astronomer, an astrologer, in general ; professing astrology and fortune - telling, and employed in casting nativities. In Upper India, the name is applied to an inferior order of Brahmans following this occupation ; in the Dekhan, to a caste of Sudras. The term, when restricted to a Brahman conversant with astro nomical science, implies considerable respect ability, as is the case with the Joshis of Kamaon. Their name is derived from Jotish, astrology, and they are known also by the names of Bhudurea and Dukout. The manner of the employment of tho Joshi is described in Exodus xxxii. 5, where Aaron made proclamation, and said, To-morrow is a feast to the Lord.' Similarly, before a religious ceremony or festival, the officiating Brahman or an appointed person proclaims, To morrow, or on such a day, such a ceremony will be performed ; ' and every morning, in Southern India, the joshi goes from house to house to inform the inmates as to the sacred rites of the day de pending on the planetary movements.
The Hindu almanacs or panchanga are so com plicated that ordinary persons cannot understand them, and every town has a number of men who earn a livelihood by going from house to house to explain the conditions which are to guide their religious rites. Jotidar, in Bengal, a village
authority. Jotisastri-karia, Slxatt., an astrologer.
Jotish, correctly Jyautisham, in Sanskrit, in cludes mathematical, astronomical, and astrological science. treatises on Jotish are all in San skrit, but some are written in other characters. The Sanskrit names for the zodiacal signs are Mesbam, ram. 1 Tula, scales.
Vrisabham, bull. Vrischicam, scorpion.
Mithinam, twins. Dhanas, bow.
Karkatacam, crab. Macaram, he.goat.
Simbam, lion. Kumbha, vessel.
Kanya, virgin. i Mina, fishes.
Jyotishia, in Sanskrit, is astronomy, astrology. Jyotishi, an astronomer ; an astrologer who pre pares the calendar, casts nativities, and tells for tunes.
The Jyotisha is a Sanskrit astronomical treatise, one of the Vedanga, detailing the most auspicious days and seasons for the Hindus to perform the Vedic sacrifices and ceremonies. One of its tracts, of 36 verses, is supposed to he of date n.c. 300.
Seo Almanac ; Panehanga ; Vedanga.