KAPURTHALA, a Native State in the I'anjab, tying between lat. 31° 9' and 39' 30' N., and long. 75° 3' 15" and 38' 30" E. Area, 800 square miles. The chiefs are Sikhs of the Jat tribe. The chief of Kapurthala at one time held possessions both in Cis and Trans Sutlej, and also in the Bari Doab. The scattered possessions in the Bari Doab were gained by the sword, and were the first acquisitions made by sirdar Jussa Singh, the founder of the family. In them lies the village of Aloe, whence the family spring, and from which the designation Aloowalia derived. The Trans-Sutlej estates were also acquired by conquest, and from the chief city therein, Kapur thala, the family derives its general designation. Of the Cis-Sutlej possessions, sonic were con quered, and some were granted by maharaja Ranjit Singh, prior to September 1808. The total value of the Cis-Sutlej possessions was estimated at Rs. 5,65,000. By a treaty of the 25th April 1809, the sirdar of Kapurthala was pledged to furnish supplies to British troops moving through or cantoned in his Cis•Sutlej territory ; and by article 5 of the Declaration of the 6th May 1809, he was bound to the British standard with his followers during war. In 1826, the sirdar Futteli Singh fled to the Cis-Sutlej states for the pro tection of the British Government against the aggressions of Ranjit Singh, and protection was accorded. It was declared that the Aloowalia chief was under British protection in respect to his ancestral possessions east of the Sutlej, but dependent on Lahore for places conferred by the Lahore Government prior to September 1808, viz. Bussi, Narraingarh, and Jugraon. The pro
tection of the British Government, however, extended over both. In the first Sikh war, the troops of Kapurthala fought against the British at Aliwal, and, in consequence of these hostilities and of the failure of the sirdar to furnish supplies from his Cis-Sutlej estates to the British army, the Cis-Sutlej estates were confiscated.
In 1849, sirdar Nihal Singh was created a raja. He died in September 1852, and was succeeded by his son Rundhir Singh. During the mutiny of 1857, and subsequently in Oudh in 1858, the raja Rundhir Singh rendered service to the British. The Government, among other rewards, remitted a year's tribute, and permanently reduced the tribute to its former amount, viz. Rs. 1,31,000. For his services in Oudh the raja received the estates of Baundi and Bithowli in perpetuity, with remission of half the re venue, and he has been guaranteed the right of adoption.
In 1878 its ruler had as titles His Highness, Farzand Dil - bund, Rasukh - ul - Itikad Daulat Englishia, Rajai Rajgan, Jagat Jit Singh Bahadur, Aloowalia, Wali Kapurthala, Baundi, Bathowli, and Acowria. — Aitcheson's Treaties, etc., p. 373.