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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 2

Kumaon
Kumaon, A District In The N.w. Provinces Of British India, Including Kumaon Proper, Kali Kumaon, And The Bhabar ; It Lies Between Lat. 28° 55' And 30° 50' 30" N., And Between Long. 52' And 80° 56' 15" E. ; Its Area Is 6000 Square Miles, And Population, In 1872, ...

Kumbhupatia
Kumbhupatia, A Sect Of Hindu Dissenters, Lately Founded In The Sumbulpur District, And Known As Kumbhupatia, From The Fact That Its Followers Wear Ropes Of Bark Round Their Waists. They Allege That Their Religion Was Revealed To 64 Persons In 1864 By A God Incarnate, Whom They Style Alckhswamy,—that Is, ...

Kummalar
Kummalar, In The Malealarn Country, An Artificer. The Ainkudi Kummalar Of Malabar Are The Five Artisan Castes,—theashari Or Carpenter, The Mushari Or Brazier, The Tattan Or Goldsmith. The Perning-kollen Or Blacksmith, And The Tol Konen Or Tanner. These Five Castes Follow The Custom Of Marrying One Girl Among Three Or ...

Kunawar
Kunawar Is A Subdivision Of Bashahir State In The Panjab. It Is A Rugged, Mountainous Country, And Lies Between Lat. 31° 16' And 32° 3' N., And Long. 77° 33' To 2' E. ; Area, 21,000 Sq. M. ; Pop. 10,000. It Is Bounded On The N. By Spiti, On ...

Kunbi
Kunbi, A Mahratta Race Engaged In Cultivation. They Are Also The Main Body Of The Cultivating Population Of Gujerat, Where They Are The Chief Owners Of The Soil ; And, Though Quiet And Unpre Tending, Are A Robust, Sturdy, Independent Agri Cultural People. Throughout The Mahratta Country, Berar, Nagpur, And ...

Kunkar Hind
Kunkar. Hind. Nodular, Tufaceous, Traver Tine-like Deposits Of Carbonate Of Lime. It Is Formed In All Soils By The Action Of Springs, Like The Travertines Of Italy. In Some Places It Is A Pure Carbonate Of Lime ; In Others It Is A Concreted Limestone Or Pisolite ; These, Kinds ...

Kur
Kur. A Hindu Practice For Extorting A Debt Was Called Erecting A Kur, Meaning A Circular Pile Of Wood, Which Was Prepared Ready For Con Flagration. Upon This, Sometimes A Cow, And Sometimes An Old Woman, Was Placed By The Con Structors Of The Pile, And The Whole Was Consumed ...

Kuram
Kuram District Is The Valley Of The River Kuram, About 60 Miles Long, And Breadth From 3 To 10 Miles. The Scenery Is Fine, And In Some Places Grand, The Safed Koh Forming A Magnifi Cent Background To A Picture Of Quiet Beauty. The Kuram River Runs Through Green Fields ...

Kurao
Kurao. The Practice, Which Is Also Known To The Eastward By The Name Of Uorhuree, In The Dekhan By Butt'hhee, And In Other Provinces By The Name Of Dhureecha, Is Followed Among The Jat Races, But Is Not Very Openly Confessed Even Among Them, As Some Degree Of Discredit Is ...

Kurdistan
Kurdistan, The Country Of The Kurd, Is A District In The East Of Persia, Though The Kurd Are Also Found In The West Of Persia, In Asia Minor And Syria. Its Limits Comprise The Greatest Part Of The Territory Of The Kurd Or Carduchi. This Extensive Tract Is Divided Into ...

Kurile Archipelago
Kurile Archipelago Is On The East Of Asia. It Is A Chain Of Small Islands, 900 Miles Long, Extending From Cape Lopataka, The Southern Promontory Of Kamtschatka, In A South-west Direc Tion, To The Isle Of Jew, Or Yezo. They Are 22 In Number, And Were First Visited By The ...

Kurma
Kurma, In Hindu Mythology, Was The Second Grand Avatara Of Vishnu, In The Form Of A Tortoise, And Evidently Refers, Like The First, The Matsya Or Fish Avatar, To The Flood. For The Purpose Of Restoring To Man Some Of The Comforts And Con Veniences That Were Lost In The ...

Kurmi
Kurmi, Cultivators Dwelling North Of The Kunbi, But To The South Of The Rajput And Jat. They Form The Bulk Of The Population In The Part Of Manbhum Near The Damuda River ; In Consider Able Numbers In All The Central And Eastern Parts Of The North-west Provinces Or In ...

Kurmsaq Pers
Kurmsaq. Pers. As An Expression Of Con Tempt, The Word Sag, Signifying A Clog, Is Generally Applied To Christians By The Persians ; And Among Themselves, As Equally Contemptuous, Kurmsaq Is In Very Frequent Use. Ouseley Suspects That Sag And Kurmsaq Are The Sacm And Khor-sa-kao Mentioned By Solinus, Those ...

Kuru Kshetra
Kuru-kshetra, A Holy Tract And Place Of Hindu Pilgrimage In The Amballa District Of The Panjab, Embracing The Country Lying Around The Town Of Thaneswar As A Centre. The Name Derives Its Origin From Kuru, Father Of Santanu, Great Grandfather Of The Heroes Who Figure In The Maha Bharata. Kuru ...

Kurumbar Or
Kurumbar Or Kurubar. Can. A Shepherd, From Kuru, A Sheep ; A Shepherd Race Who Occupy The Elevated Plateau In The Centre Of The Peninsula Of India. They Are An Ancient People, The Earliest Known Occupants Of Dravida Desam, The Modern Carnatic, And Coromandel. They Seem To Have Established Numerous ...

Kutub Minar
Kutub Minar At Old Dehli Was Erected From The Pillars And Other Parts Of Jaina Temples, And Many Of Them Retain The Sculptured Figures. In 1794, Though Its Capital Was Then Ruined, It Was 250 Feet 11 Inches In Height. Its Present Height Is 238 Feet 1 Inch, Deducting The ...

Kutub Sham
Kutub Sham, A Dynasty Of Kings Of The 16th And 17th Centuries, Ruling In Golconda, And Hyderabad In The Dekhan. Sultan Kuli, /le.. 1512 Muhammad, . A.d. 1580 Jamshid, . . „ 1543 Muhammad, . „ 1611 Subhan Kuli, „ 1550 Abdullah, . . „ 1626 Ibrahim, . . „ ...

Kyoung
Kyoung. Burnt. A Buddhist Monastery. All Burmese Boys Enter The Monasteries As Novices For The Purpose Of Learning To Read And Write ; They Must At Least Be Eight Years Of Age. Sec Monastery. L Is The Twelfth Letter In The English Alphabet, And By Grammarians Is Usually Denominated A ...

L Hibiscus Cannabinus
Hibiscus Cannabinus, L., Dekhani Hemp. Kudrum Of . . Behar. Ambari, . . . Deer. Mesta Pat, Nalki, Beng. Sankokla Patsan, Panj. I'unday, Pundrica, Can. Vatsan, Sunni Of Ip Hiang-ma, . . Chin. Palungo, . . , Tam. Peh-ma, Ye-ma, . Ft Pulacha, . . . Pula Namaji, . . ...

Lablab Vulgare Dc
Lablab Vulgare. D.c. Lablab Nankinicus, Savi. D. Bongalensis, Jacq. L. Lignosus, Wall. D. Purpureus, Jacq. L. Leucocarpus, Sari. D. Tetraspermum, Dolichos Lablab, Linn. I D. Cuspidatus, Graham, D. Spicatus, Keen. Wall. D. Albus, Lour. Bun-shim, . . . Bend. Lobi Pers. Bullar (black Soeded),bon. Wall, Sind. . . . „ ...

Labuan
Labuan, An Island About 10 Miles• Long And From 2 To 5 Broad, Ceded To The British In 1840. It Has The Harbour Of Victoria On Its South. The Island Is 6 Miles Off The N.w. Coast Of Borneo. The Dependent Islets All Lie To The South. The Measures Of ...

Laccadiva Or
Laccadiva Or Laccadives, An Archipelago Off The Coast Of Malabar, Extending From Lat. 8° 30' N. To The Parallel Of Lat. 13° 52' N., And Fropi Long. 71° To 73° 40' E. Most Of The Islands Are Low, And Surrounded By Steep Coral Reefs. The Inhabitants Call Them The Lakhera-ckevh. ...

Lace
Lace. Kanten , But. Rends (gold Or Silver), Dentelle, . . . Fn. Malay. Spitzen, . . • Ger. Krushewo, . . . Rus. Merletti, Fizzi, . . It. Encajes Sc. Lace Is A Term Applied To Two Very Distinct Products, One Consisting Of Gold And Silver Wire, Or Even ...

Lacquer
Lacquer, A Varnish Either For Wood Or For Brass, Made With Shell-lac And Spirits Of Wine. Hard Wood Lacquer May Be In The Proportion Of 2 Lbs. Of Lac To The Gallon. Another Recipe Is 1 Lb. Of Seed-lac And 1 Lb. Of White Rosin To A Gallon Of Spirits ...

Lacquer Ware
Lacquer Ware. Three Different Processes Are Usually Confounded Under This Term. The One Prevailing In Burma Is With The Balsamic Juices Of Trees, And Was Well Known To Dampier In 1638, As He Says, ' The Lac Of Tonquin Is A Sort Of Gummy Juice Which Drains Out Of The ...

Ladakii
Ladakii Is Called La Tag In The Tibetan, Ka - Than - Pa Or Snowland, Mar - Yul, Redland Or Lowland. Ladakh Anciently Was Called Kie Chha By The Chinese, And Is Still Called By Them Kha-pa-clian Or Kha-chan, Abounding In Snow Or Snowland ; The People As Kha-pa-chan-pa Or ...

Lagenaria Vulgaris
Lagenaria Vulgaris. Serr. Cucurbita Lagenaria, Linn., Bottle Gourd. Charrah, . . . . Arab. White Pumpkin, . Eng. Kodu, Lau, . . . Beng. Kaddu, . . . Hind. Hu-lu, . . . . Chin. Tomra Kaddu, „ Quara Tauvil, . . Egypt. Labe Ambon, . . Malay. Quara M'davar, ...

Lagoon
Lagoon. Shallow Salt-water Lagoons, Known As Backwaters, Run Around The Shores Of The Bay Of Bengal And Of The Arabian Sea, Some Of Them From Twenty To Fifty Miles Long ; They Afford Great Facilities For A Safe Inland Traffic Along The Coast Line, The Violence Of The Monsoons, And ...

Lahore
Lahore, A Largo City In The Panjab, In Lat. 31° 34' 5" N., And Long. 74° 21' E., Gives Its Name To A Revenue District Of That Province. Its Popula Tion In 1881 Numbered 149,369, Chiefly Muham Matlans And Hindus, With A Small Number Of Sikhs. Situated On The High ...

Lahoul Or
Lahoul Or Lahul Is A Subdivision Of Kangra District, Panjab, Lying Between Lat. 32° 8' And 32° 59' N., And Long. 76° 49' And 77° 46' 30" E., And Comprising The Valley Between The Chamba Mountains On The North-west And The Kanzam Range On The South-east. Area, 2199 Sq. Miles. ...

Lai3bay
Lai3bay, A Muhammadan Race In Large Num Bers On The Eastern Coast, Chiefly Between Pulicat On The North And Negapatam On The South, Their Headquarters Being At Nagor, Near Negapatam, The Burial-place Of Their Patron Saint, Nagor Miran Sahib, To Whose Shrine Numerous Pilgrimages Are Made By The Tribe. The ...

Lakes
Lakes. Tal, Cho, T'ao, . Boor. I Nil, Hind. Ing, Bum Danau, Taaek, . Malay. Throughout British India There Are Few Natural Lakes, Most Of Them Only Fit For Purposes Of Irri Gation ; The Largest Natural Waters In The Country Are Equalled, And In Many Cases Surpassed, By The ...

Lakshmi
Lakshmi, The Hindu Goddess Of Prosperity, Is Called Also Sri, Padma, Hira, Indira, Jaladhi-ja (ocean Born), Chanchala Or Lola (the Fickle, As Goddess Of Fortune), Loka-mata, Mother Of The World, And Other Names, Which Are Mentioned Below. There Are Several Legends As To Her Origin. The Taittiriya Sanhita Describes Lakshmi ...

Lally
Lally. Count Lally Tollendal, A French Officer, Arrived In India In 1758 As Commander-in Chief In The French Possessions. His Father Was Sir Gerard O'lally, An Irishman, Who, Having Defended Limerick, Took Service With The French. Lie Formed The Irish Brigade, And His Son Thomas Arthur, At The Age Of ...

Lama
Lama, Correctly B'lama, Is The Tibetan Word For A Superior, And Applied To Monks. The Dalai Lama, Literally Ocean Superior, Is The Highest In Rank Of The Tibetan Lamas. He Resides At Yulsung Or Lhassa. He Is Viewed As An Incar Nation Of The Dlyano Bodhi-satwa, Chenresi, Who Is Supposed ...

Lamp
Lamp. Dipa, . . . Beng. Lampadu, . . . Rue. Lampe, . . . Fr., Ger. Dwipa, . . Sansk., Tel. Charagh, . . . Hind. Lampara, . . . Sp. Lucerna, . . . .• It. Vallak, . . . Tam. Lamps Are Formed Of Various Materials And ...

Land
Land. According To Menu, Cultivated Land Is The Property Of Him Who Cut Away The Wood, Or Who Cleared And Tilled It, And This Ordinance Is Binding On All The Hindu Race, Which Uo Inter National Wars Or Conquests Has Overturned. At Present, In British India,— Oadh Has Great Zamindars, ...

Langota Or
Langota Or Langoti. Hind. A Cloth Passed Between The Thighs, And Fastened To A String Before And Behind. Langoti-dost, A Friend From Infancy, From The Days When They Wore The Langoti. Languages In Eastern And Southern Asia Are Numerous. Along The Low Level Tract Border Ing The Ocean, From The ...

Languages
Languages In Use In Baluchistan, Are Brah Uiki Or Kur-gali, Baluchki, Jatki, And Persian, But Only The Last - Named Is A Written Tongue. Considered As A Whole, Dr. Caldwell Regards The Brahuiki Language As Derived From The Same Source As The Panjabi And Sindi, But It Unquestionably Contains A ...

Lantsan
Lantsan, A River In The West Of China. To Its West Is A Country Inhabited By The Numerous Tribes Of Yatezu, Mooquor, Moso, And Leisu. These Tribes Live In Small Villages, Each Under Its Own Headman, The Whole Tribe Being Ruled By One Chief, Who Holds The Chinese Rank Of ...

Laos
Laos Are A People Of The Thai Or Siamese Group, The Most Civilised Of Whom Occupy The Valley Of The Menam And Its Feeders. They Dwell In Zimmay, Also On The Menam, Between Lat. 19° And 22° N., Due North Of Siam Proper, And Due West Of The Burmese Frontier, ...

Laou Tsze
Laou Tsze Was Born B.c. 604, And Died B.c. 520, At The Age Of 84 ; Confucius, Kung-fu-tze, Was Born B.c. 551, And Died In !lc. 479, At The Age Of 72 ; Thus They Were Contemporaries. Con Fucius Visited Laou Tsze At The Court Of Chow. The Parents Of ...

Lapis Lazuli
Lapis-lazuli, Azure Stone. Liu 1i, Ho-tsi, . . Obin.lazwardi, . . . Bialat. I Lajaward, Lajburd, Hind. Lapis-lazuli Is A Complex Combination Of Sili Cate And Sulphate Of Aluminum. It Is Found In Persia, Baluchistan, China, Siberia, Bucharia, And Chili, And Varies In Price From 10s. To 15s. The Ounce. ...

Laportea Crenulata
Laportea Crenulata. Gaud., Roxb. Urtica Crenulata, Roxb. I Dendrocnide Crenulata, U. Javanensis, Gaud. Mig. L. Gigantea, Gaud. Fever Nettle, . . Eng. I Maoosa-gass, . . Singh. Devil Nettle, . . . „ This Dreadfully Stinging Tree Or Large Shrub Is Only Too Common In Most Of The Western Coast ...

Lapwings
Lapwings Are Birds Of The Family Chara Dridm, Of The Sub-family Vanellinm, And Of The Genera Vanellus, Chetusia, Lobivanellus, Sarcio Phorus, And Hoplopterus. The Crested Lapwing, Vanellus Cristatus, The English Peewit, Occurs Throughout A Great Part Of Europe And Asia. It Breeds In The Panjab. The Little Brown-coloured Lapwing, Chetusia ...

Lar Hind
Lar. Hind. A Necklace Of Several Threads Or Rows ; 7 Rows, Etc. ; Also A Strand Of Untwisted Rope. Lar, The Local Name Of The Southern Portion Of The Province Of Sind, From Hyderabad To The Sea, Where The People Speak The Lari Dialect Of Sindi. Lar, A River, ...

Larks
Larks Are Singing Birds Of Europe And Asia, Of The Sub-family Alaudinm. They Have Been Arranged By Jerdon Into The Bush Larks, True Larks, And Long-billed Or Desert Larks. Mirafra Assamica, Bengal Bush Lark. M. Affinis, Madras Bush Lark. M. Erythroptero, Red-winged Lark. M. Cantilans, Jerdon. M. Horsfieldii, Of Australia. ...

Laswari
Laswari, A Village In The Ulwar (alwar) State Of Rajputana, In Lat. 33' 30" N., And Long. 54' 45" E. It Is Famous In Indian History As The Scene Of A Great Battle, Won By Lord Lake, On The 1st November 1803, Which Destroyed The Mahratta Power In India. The ...

Laterite
Laterite. Cabook, &non. A Clay Iron Ore Peculiar To India. It Covers The Western Coast Almost Continuously, And For The Most Part Up To The Very Foot Of The Ghats, From Near Bombay To Ceylon. It Is Found In Detached Beds Along The Coromandel Coast, Near Madras And Nellore, Raja ...

Lavender
Lavender. Lavendel, Da.,do.,g.,sw. Lavandula, . . Lat., Sr. Lavande, . . . . Fn. Alfazema, . . . Po Rt. Tistakhudas, . . Hum. Unyetshnayatrava, Res. Lavendola, Spigo, . Kr. Espliego, . . . . Sr. Twelve Species Of Lavender Have Been Described, Only Two Of Which Are Of Much ...

Lawrence
Lawrence. Sir Henry Lawrence, An Officer Of The Bengal Army Who Was Employed In 1842 As Political Agent, In 1853 As Resident At Ajmir, In 1857 As Resident At Oudh. Lie Was Besieged In Lucknow During The Mutiny, Was Defeated At Chinhut 30th June 1857, And On The 4th July ...

Lawsonia Inermis
Lawsonia Inermis. Lien. Lawsonia Alba, Lace., W. Lawsonia Spinosa, Linn. Urkan, . . . . Arab. Henna,mbendi, Shudu, . . . Beng. Ponta Letshi, . Maleal. Dan, Bush. Daunlacca, „ Chi-kiah-hwa,. Chin. Sakachara, . . . Saheb. Hai-nah, . . „ Marudani, . . . . Tam. Yen-chi-kiah, . „ ...

Lead
Lead. Lead, The Saturn Of The Ancients, Is One Of The Most Anciently Known Of The Metals. It Is Found Chiefly As Sulphuret Or Galena, But A Little In A Metallic State Also, As An Oxide, And Combined With Several Acids. It Is A Soft And Flexible Metal, Of A ...

Leaf Insect
Leaf Insect. One Of Those Of Ceylon, The True Leaf Insect, Is The Phyllium Siccifolium. It Eats Leaves, And Those Of The Jambo In Particular. The Phyllium Psyche, Common In The East Indies, Is Called The Walking Leaf. It Seems, Indeed, To Be A Bunch Of Leaves Endowed With Life. ...

Leaf Rot
Leaf Rot. Koleroga, Can. The Name Given To A Diseased Condition Of The Leaves Of The Coffee Plant, Caused By An Epiphyte Growing And Develop Ing Upon The Leaf, To Which It Is Superficially Attached. The Most Serious Of The Diseases Under Which The Coffee Plantations In Ceylon Have So ...

Leather
Leather. Lauder, . . . . Dan. Charm, . . . Pers. Leder, Leer, Dut., Ger. Coiro, . . . Port. Cuir, Fa. Koaha, . . . Charmo, Chatnra, . Hind. Cuero, Se Cuojo, It. Lader, S W. Corium, . . . . Lat. Tol, . . . . . ...

Lebanon Or
Lebanon Or Jabl Libnan, An Extensive Mountain System Chiefly Belonging To Central Syria, But Thrown Off Towards The South From The Great Chain Of Mount Taurus And The Lofty Table Land Of Anatolia, And, Untr Various Names And Aspects, Extending Along A D Beyond The E. Coast Of The Mediterranean ...