Muhammadans are hound to recognise professors of Muhammadanism, being enjoined to do so in the Koran : ' Do not say to one who meets you and salutes you, You are not a true believer,' and, 0 ye true believers, avoid suspicions, for suspi cion is often a crime, 'are two texts known to all, and generally obeyed. Hence the pronouncing of the first part of the creed, 1,a Mahe. it Allah°, There is no deity but God, entitles the speaker to a favourable reception.
Mahomed in the Koran asserts that his religion is that of Abraham. The religion he established is termed Islam, signifying safety or salvation, and comprises the two essentials, Iman, implicit faith, and Din, practical religion. Fivo points are insisted on, namely, belief in God and Mahomed his apostle; prayer; almsgiving; fasting during the month of Ramazan ; pilgrimage to Mecca. The first of these belongs to Iman ; the latter four to Din.
Muhammadanism, as it now exists, stands upon other foundations than the Koran. This book not furnishing a guide or precept to meet every emergency, a great body of tradition, denominated the Hadis, has been added ; and this law, oral as it originally was, is generally considered equally binding with the written law of the Koran. These traditionary precepts were derived from Mahomed himself, his companions, and immediate suc cessors. Some of them are, however, of doubtful authenticity, and not a few are evidently of more modern fabrication. The Persians reckon four kinds of Hadis.
The principal places for minor pilgrimages are the tomb of .Ali, called Mash'hid-i-Ali, at Naj'f near Kufa; the shrine of Imam Husain at Kerbela; and that of Imam Raza at Mash'hid in Khorasan ; but all the numerous lmam-zadah and tombs of holy characters throughout the country are visited. The minor pilgrimage is termed a Ziyarat, as distin guished from the Haj or great pilgrimage to Mecca.
Of the Muhammadan saints of Asia are Abdul Kadar, surnamed Ghous-ul-Azam, the great con templative, born at Jal, near Baghdad, A.H. 471 (A.D. 1078-79). He was endowed with great virtue, and, with the gift of miracles, had many disciples, and is still much revered. He is called Shaikh, but was a Syud, Le. of tho raco of Husain, and died in A.II. 571 (A.D. 1175), aged ninety seven years. Where he died or was buried does not appear.
Sultan Sarwur, at Baluch, four cos from Multan, was distinguished for piety and purity of manners, and died as a martyr, with his brother, fighting against a troop of idolaters, and was buried with his wife (who died of grief) and his son in the same tomb. Several miracles are related as
having at his tomb. A camel's leg, when broken, was forthwith made whole ; the blind, the leprous, the impotent were cured.
Shah Shams-ud-Din, Dariai, at Depaldal in Lahore, is stated to have had even a pious Hindu among his disciples. The latter having expressed a wish to go and bathe in the Ganges, the saint directed him to shut his eyes, when lo ! the Hindu found himself among his relations and friends on that sacred stream, in which (as he supposed) he bathed with them. On opening his eyes again, he straightway found himself beside his spiritual guide in Lahore. His tomb is guarded by Hindus, who will not resign their posts to the Muhammad ans. It is also related that some carpenters, having proceeded to cut down a tree which grew near his tomb, split it into many pieces for use. Suddenly a dreadful voice was heard ; the earth shook, and the trunk of the tree arose of itself ; the workmen fled terrified, and the tree did not fail to resume its flourishing condition.
Kutub Sahib, or Kutub-ud-Din, lies buried at Kutub, a town near Dehli, named after him, in which the late Shah Alam and many members of the royal family of Dehli are buried. His tomb is much frequented by pilgrims, he being one of the most renowed and venerated of the Muhammadan saints.
Shaikh Baha-ud-Din, Zakaria, born at Cotcaror in Milian. lie was a great traveller, having, it is said, overrun Persia and Turkey, and a disciple for some time of Shahab-tid-Din, Sohurmurdi, at Baghdad. Ile died on the 7th Sufur, A.n. 665 (A.D. 7th September 1266), and was buried at Multan. • Furrid-ud-Din, born at G han-a wal, near Mahan. He was so holy, that by his look clods of earth were converted into lumps of sugar. lie was there fore surnamed Shakargunj, the treasury of sugar.
Shaikh Sherif hu Ali Qalandar, born at Pani put, a town 30 cos north-west of Dehli, to which capital he came at forty years of age, and became a disciple of Kutub-ud-Din. lie devoted himself for twenty years to external sciences; after which lie threw all his books in the Jumna, and began to travel for religious instruction. In Asia Minor he profited greatly by the society of Shams Tabriz and Mulvi Humi. He then returned home, lived retired and worked miracles, and is said to have died A.n. 724 (A.n. 1323-24?).