Shah Nizain-ud-Din Aulia, by some supposed to have been born at Gazna, A.II. 630 (A.D. 1222-23), and by others in A.II. 634 (A.D. 1236), at Badaun, a town in the province of Dehli, where ho lived. He died A.n. 725 (A.D. 1325), and was buried near Debli, hard by the tomb of Kutub-ud-Din. Through his great piety be was considered one of the most eminent saints of Hindustan.
Kabir, a celebrated Hindu unitarian, equally revered by Hindus and Muhammadans, founder of the sect called Kabir Panthi or Nanak Panthi, from which Nanak, founder of the Sikhs, borrowed the religious notions which he propagated with the greatest success.
Baba Lal, a darvesh (and likewise a Hindu), who dwelt at Dhianpur, in the province of Lahore, the founder of a sect called Baba Lali. lie held frequent conversations on the subject of religion with Dam Shikob, eldest son of Shah Jahan, and brother of Aurangzeb, which have been published in a Persian work by Chandarbhan Shah Jahani.
Shah Dola died in the seventeenth year of the reign of Alamgir, was at first a slave of Humay andar Sialkoti, in Lahore. But he seems after wards to have attained great affluence, as well as fame ; for, having settled at Ch'hoteo Goojrat (Little Gujerat), he built tanks, dug wells, founded mosques and bridges, and wondrously embellished the city, for though his came to visit him from far and near, and made him presents of gold, money, and other objects, he returned to each three or four fold more than he received. His generosity was such, that had he been contemporary with Hatim Tai, no one would have mentioned the name of that hero.
Syed Shah Zubur, distinguished by his wisdom, piety, and austerity of life. He built a small monastery of earth at Allahabad, which still re mains. Ho was celebrated for his miracles ; and by his prayers the most frightful chronic com plaints were immediately removed, of which an instance is given in respect to the case of the governor of Allahabad, Nawab Urndat-u1-3Iulk Amir Khan. Zuhur boasted of having lived 300 years. • Shaikh Muhammad Ali Hasin Jilani. His tomb is at Buxar, where he died is A.H. 1180 (A.D. 1766 67), distinguished for his science, learning, and literary talents. He wrote in both prose and verse with equal skill.
There may be mentioned also Abdul - Kadar, Gilani, styled Pir-i-Piran and Pir-i-Dastagir, and Badi-ud-Din, a Syrian saint.
They recognise about 156 sects. As a broad distinction, they are generally classed as Shiah and as Sunni, but the six bodies of sectarians who oppose the Sunni are classed by them as Rafziab, Kharjiah, Jabriah, Kadriah, Jahmiah, and Mar jiah, each of whom are broken up into smaller bodies. Before the end of the 1st century, from the ascetic turn and the theosophy inseparable there from, a combination, styled among the Arabs Sufi, had arisen. This made rapid strides, and in the end of the 3d century of the Hijira was already itself the subject of learned works, and the Muham madan world has carried the system to the utmost extreme. Their Sufi outstrip in every point of view both the Hindu Jogi and the Christian monks. The asceticism of the Sufi is more system atic, their pantheistic teaching deeper and more consistent, and their vices more enormous, than those of any other people. Spinoza and Schelling are left far behind by Ibn Arabi.
Great' portions of, the earth have been brought under the sway of the races professing Islam, and this has moulded the heroic character of the Mu hammadan world. The pride of belonging to the dominant creed makes every man a hero, and, even in the domain of, mind, produces under such circumstances the elements of greatness.
Muhammadan law comprises things lawful and things unlawful. The lawful are arranged into five classes, viz: :— • .Farz, enjoined in the Koran.
Wajib, there are some doubts as to its divine injunction. , Sunnat, the example of Mahomed.
Mustahab, that which' he sometimes did, and sometimes omitted. .
Mubah, that which may be left unperformed, without any fear of divine punishment.
The unlawful things are Haram, distinctly forbidden in the Koran and Hadis. • Malcruh, that which is by common consent con sidered to be unclean or unlawful.
Mufsid, that which is corrupting and pernicious. —Sale's Koran • Malcolm's Persia ; Malcolm's Central India ; Hue, Chinese Empire; P. Arminius Vambery of Bok,ha ra ; Richard F. Burton, Scinde ; Bunsen, God in History; Ferrier's Journey; Araish i-211ahfil ; :Price's Muhammadan History ; The Bhilsa Topes ; Cunningham ; Dr. Sprenger; Herk lots, Qanoon-i-Islam..