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Order Xii Coleoptera

pair, genera, wings, legs, palpi and lip

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ORDER XII. COLEOPTERA. —Mouth masticatory, fur nished with an upper lip or labrum, two mandibles, two maxillae, with maxillary palpi (generally four-jointed), and a moveable lower lip or labium, with jointed labial palpi. The four wings are usually present, and the anterior pair are not adapted for flight, but are hsrdened by chitine, so as to form protective cases (elytra) for the posterior wings. The inner margins of the clytra aro generally straight, and when in contact they form a longitudinal suture. The posterior wings are mem branous, and when not in use are folded beneath the clytra. The antennae variable.

This order comprises all the beetles properly so With insects, the principal parts attached to the head are two antenna, an upper lip (labrum), a lower lip (labium), bearing the labial palpi ; pair of jaws (mandibles), an inner pair of jaws (maxilla), to which are attached the maxillary palpi. The thorax is divided into three segments, the pro-thorn; meso-thorax, and meta- t horax. The pro-thorax bears the front pair of legs ; the tneso thorax bears the front pair of wings and second pair of legs ; the meta-thorax bears the second pair of wings and the third pair of legs. The legs consist of the following principal parts : the coxa, trochanter, the femur, tibia, and tarsus.

The diversified elevations of the countries of the East Indies, with their varied temperatures, cause in localities a greater or less abundance of particular forms ; but numerous genera of tropical and temperate climates are everywhere associated together, and the range which the genera enjoy is very considerable.

But the pervading character of Indian entom ology is uniformity. We meet with numerous genera, both of tropical and temperate climes, associated together. There is a great intermingling of forms, and the range which genera enjoy is considerable. In part of the Himalayas, at the extreme southern points of India, in the west, and even in the Archipelago, there is one pervading character, evincing everywhere the prevalence of tropical genera. In Nepal and the southernmost

extremity of the Mysore, in Ceylon, at Bombay, at Madras, and at Calcutta, also at Singapore, in Japan, and in Java, with the rest of the Polynesian Isles, the majority of the same types abound ; and what is of more consequence, a great majority of the same species also occur in most of the above mentioned regions. Also, if we turn to Africa, we find a considerable similarity in its ento mology with that of Asia. Among the Carabidm occur Anthia, Orthogonius, Trigonodactyla, and Siagona ; among the Lamellicornes, Epirinus, and Popillia, the conical Buprestidm and the extra ordinary Paussidm ; and to these may be added the genera Melyris, Megalopus, Sagra, and Ado rium ; Dorylus among the Hymenoptera, and Diopsis among the Diptera. We find precisely the same species in both continents. Among the most conspicuous are Copris sabmus and C. pithecius, Cetonia cornuta and Lytta gigas. Even supposing that no identical species occurred common to Asia and Africa, a very remarkable similarity exists in the representatives of each ; one example of which is Ateuchus sanctus, which very closely resembles the celebrated sacred beetle of the Egyptians, the object of their worship, by some regarded as an emblem of fertility, but more probably that of eternity.

This branch of natural history has been largely cultivated by many eminent writers, both in its scientific and economic relations ; and among those who are quoted in this article may be named J. C. Fabricius, 1775 and 1803 ; Donovan ; J. 0. Westwood, Drury, Exotic Entomology ; J. C. Farmer, F. W. Hope, 1837 and 1851 ; Thomas Horsfield and Frederic Moore ; Sir James Emerson Tennent, A. E. Wallace, John Nietner, J. Wood Mason, Charles Darwin, Sir John Lubbock, Albert Muller, W. H. Benson, H. Thompson, and Miss Eleanor A. Ormerod. John Curtis, in 1824 and 1860, wrote on Farm Insects and the Turnip Crop ; and in 1877, and again in 1882, Miss Ormerod produced a very valuable work on the Insects attacking Field and Garden Crops.

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