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Panjab

tribes, lbs, province, nation, ghilzai, khel and section

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PANJAB, a great province in the extreme N.W. of British India, with an area of 142,449 square miles, and a population of 22,712,120 inhabitants. It takes its name, literally the Five Rivers, from five of the great streams which intersect it,—the Sind or Indus, the Jhelum or Hydaspes, the Chenab or Ascesines, the Ravi or Hydraotes, and the Gharra or Hyphasis. In many parts the rainfall is scant, :and droughts and famines occur. In 1859 there. was drought ; famines recurred in 1860, 1868,-and 1869, severely in the last-named year, and the year 1878 was calamitous. Wheat, their great food grain, has been sellihg" at 25 to 63 lbs. for a rupee.

1862, 55 lbs. 1867, 45 lbs. 1872, 40 lbs. 1877, 42 lbs.

1863, 63 „ 1868, 37 „ 1873, 43 „ 1878, 29 „1864, 56 „ 1869, 28 „ 1874, 48 „ 1879, 25 „ 1865, 46 „ 1870, 32 „ 1875, 49 „ f 1990, 29 „ 1866, 47 „ 1871, 43 „ 1876, 55 „ IIt is a frontier country in the, route of the conquerors who have invaded India,—Aryan and non-Aryan, Scythi and Gcte, Turk and Mongol, —who have occupied the plains, and have pushed broken tribes into the mountain and desert tracts. Conquest and occupation have been facilitated by the democratic institutions of the inhabitants, and Alexander, Timur, Baber, Nadir Shah, and Ahmad all entered from the west.

At the time of Alexander's expedition, the Greeks heard of 118 different kingdoms in the N.W. of India, all more or less hostile to each other ; and the many martial tribes in and around this province, and the variety of languages spoken within its bounds, attest the accuracy of the Greek historians ; also thirty-six native,chiefships are still interspersed in British territory.

Around the borders, also, are eminently warlike tribes, independent, and kept separate by unend feuds. Every grown-up man is available for then. wars, and the numbers of their fighting men have Leen estimated at 170,200, as follows: Language. -The race distinctions observable there will be understood by the above statements, but the subject may be further illustrated by showing the languages spoken in the province It is the only province of British India in which the Muhammadans preponderate ; but the mass of the people are of Jat origin, and have only in comparatively recent years accepted the Islamic faith. The great sects of Muhammadans

are as under Tribes.-The more prominent of Mnhammadah tribes belong to three great nations,-the Ghilzai, the Pathan, and the Afghan. The Ghilzai tribes, 23 in number, have combined with tribes of Persian origin, but all claim descent from the Pathan progenitor Kais. Pathans proper num ber 23 tribes, comprising Karlanri, who are Indian in the mass (Afridi, Khatak, liraziri, etc), with a large admixture of Turk tribes, also Bangash. The Ghurghushti Pathans claim descent from Ghurgbush, son of Kais. Of the Afghans proper, 29 tribes are represented in the Panjab. They are recognised to be of Jewish or Arab stock, who have fused into a nation with the Gandhari, an ancient Indian race. They have two divisions, the original Afghans from Ghor, of Jewish or Arab descent or both, with whom are blended the ancient Gandhari immigrants from Peshawur to Kandahar. There are also 14 tribes of the Kakar, a Scythic stock, with affiliated tribes of Indian origin. Baluch claim to have come to their present territory, west of the Indus, from Aleppo. the three nations may be shown as under A. Chilzai Nation.

a. Lodi Section. ' Niazai, viz.

Lodi, 13,161 Niazai, . . . . 36,371 Khasor, . . . 2,099 Kundi, . . . . 3,667 Datanini, . • . 1,363 Lohani, viz.- b. Ghilzai Section.

Baluch, . . . . 3,749 Ghilzai, • . . . 14,166 Daulat Khel, . . 1,387 Suliman Khel, . 5,205 Minn, . . . . 5,561 Nasir, . . . . 9,005 Marwat, . . . 47,546 Kbaroti, . . . 7,169 B. Pathan Nation.

Bhitanni, . . . 3,574 b. Karlanri Section.

a. Kakar Section. 1Vaziri, . . . . 20,743 Shirani, . . 1,316 Banuchi, . . 20,307 Miani, . . . 2,211 Khatak, . . . 118,050 Babar, 2,431 Afridi, . . . . 17,426 • Oshterani, . 1,646 Utman Khel, . . 6,924 ri2 Gundupur, . 8,095 Orakzai, . . . 7,157 { g Kakar, . . 4,759 Bangash, . . . 17,565 Musa Khel, . 1,998 ,_.1 Ghorezai, . . 1,809 ,'" Penni, . . . 1,241 O. Afghan Nation.

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