PIPER LONGUM. Linn. Long pepper.
Chavica Roxburghii, Mig.
Dar filfil, . . . . ARAB. Chabai jaws, . . MALAY. Pipool , BEND. l'ipal, Maghz,pipal, PERS.
Peik khy-en, . BUM. Pilpil, Filfil-i-daraz, „ Piperi, . . . . GR. Dar-filfil, . • SI Pipol, Pipula moola, HIND. Pippalu, Krishna, SANSE. Gaz pipal, . . . „ Pipili, . . . Tait., TEL.
A native of the south-east of Asia, growing wild in India, along water-courses, towards the Circar mountains, but is much cultivated. The female spike having attached to it the dried half ripe berries (resembling the catkin of the birch), is used in medicine. It has nearly the same chemical composition and properties as black pepper, though feebler. It is said to contain piperin. The root (Granthicka, SANSK.), sliced and dried, constitutes the Pipula moola of the native druggists, a substance much used as a stimulant remedy and spice by the Hindus, but it is still weaker than the fruit. Long pepper is a creeper of easy culture, and should be trained on poles, or have strong sticks to grow upon. It is
common in all parts of India, is extensively culti vated in the Northern Circars ; its use is rather limited, but as, in the commercial returns, it is always included with black pepper, the quantity cannot be ascertained. Long pepper is readily propagated by cuttings. The stems are annual, and the roots live for several years, and, when cultivated, usually yield three or four crops, after which they seem to become exhausted, and re quire to be renewed by fresh planting. Its berries are lodged in a pulpy matter like those of P. nigrum. They are first green, becoming red when ripe. Being hotter when unripe, they are then gathered and dried in the sun, when they change to a dark-grey colour. The spikes are imported entire. The taste of the berries is pungent, though rather faint. ; Jaffrey ; /IL E. J.