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ADULTERATION (from the Latin •dulteratio) is the use of ingredients in the production of any article, which are cheaper and not so good, or which are not considered so desirable by the con senter as other or genuine ingredients for which they are substituted. The sense of the Latin word is the same. (Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxi. 6.) The law does not generally consider adulteration as an of fence, but relies apparently on an evil of this nature being corrected by the discri mination and good sense of the public. In Paris, malpractices connected with the adulteration of food are investigated by the Conseil de Salubritd, acting under the authority of the prefect of police. In this country, where the interests of the re venue are concerned, strict regulations have been resorted to in order to prevent adulteration. It is not, however, heavy customs or excise-duties alone which en courage adulteration, for the difference in price between the genuine and the spu rious ingredient, when both are free from taxation, presents equal inducement to the practice. The following is an abstract of the law respecting the adulteration of some of the principal articles of revenue t Tobacco-manufacturers are liable to a penalty of 2001. for having in their pos session sugar, treacle, molasses, honey, eommings or roots of malt, ground or unground roasted grain, ground or un ground chicory, lime, umbre, ochre, or other earths, sea-weed, ground or pow dered wood, moss or weeds, or any leaves, or any herbs or plants (not being tobacco leaves or plants), respectively, or any substance or material, syrup, liquid, or preparation, matter, or thing, to be used or capable of being used as a substitute for, or to increase the weight of tobacco of ntiff (5 & 6 Vict. c. 93, § 8). Any person engaged in any way in the pre pajtion of articles to imitate or resemble tobacco or snuff, or who shall sell or de liver such articles to any tobacco-manu facturer, is also liable to a penalty of 2001. (§ 8). The penalty for actually adulterating tobacco or snuff is 3001. (§ 1) ; and for having such tobacco or snuff in possession, 200/. (§ 3). The

Excise-survey on tobacco-manufacturers, abolished by 3 & 4 Vict. c. 18, has been re-established in consequence of the ex traordinary extent to which adulteration was carried.

The ingredients used in the adultera tion of beer are enumerated in the fol lowing list of articles which brewers or dealers and retailers in ale and beer are prohibited from having in their possession under a penalty of 200/. (56 Geo. III. a. 58, § 2). These articles are—molasses, honey, liquorice, vitriol, quassia, coculus Indicus, grains of Paradise, Guinea peppers and opium ; and preparations from these articles are also prohibited. They are used either as substitutes for hops, or to give a colour to the liquor in imitation of that which it would receive from the use of genuine ingredients. By § 3 of the same act a penalty of 500/. is imposed upon any chemist, druggist, or other person, who shall sell the articles men tioned in § 2 to any brewer or dealer in beer. The penalties against dealers in beer in the above act are extended to beer-retailers under 1 Wm. IV. c. 64, and 4 & 5 Wm. IV. c. 85, which acts also contain special provisions against adulte ration applicable to this particular class of dealers. [ALEtionsus.] Tea, another important article of re venue, is protected from adulteration by several statutes. The act 11 Geo. I. c. 30, § 5, renders a tea-dealer liable to a penalty of 100/., who shall counterfeit, adulterate, alter, fabricate, or manufacture any tea, or shall mix with tea any leaves other than leaves of tea (§ 5). Under 4 Geo. IV. c. 14, tea-dealers who dye, fa bricate, or manufacture any sloe-leaves, liquorice-leaves, or the leaves of tea that have been used, or any other leaves in imitation of tea; or shall use terra japo nica, sugar, molasses, clay, logwood, or other ingredients, to colour or dye such leaves ; or shall sell or have in their pos session such adulterated tea. are liable to a penalty of 101. for every pound of such adulterated tea found in their possession (§ 11). The 17 Geo. III. c. 29, also hibits adulteration of tea (§ 1).

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