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Abattoir
Abattoir, The Name Given By The French To The Public Slaughter-houses Which Were Established In Paris By A De Cree Of Napoleon In 1810, And Finished In 1818. There Are Three On The North, And Two On The South Side Of Paris, Not Far From The Barriers, And About Two ...

Abbot
Abbot, The Title Of The Superior Of Certain Establishments Of Religious Per Sons Of The Male Sex, Thence Called Abbeys. The Word Abbot, Or Abbot, As It Has Been Sometimes Written, Comes From Abbatis, The Genitive Of Abbas, Which Is The Greek And Latin Form Of The Syriac Abba, Of ...

Abdication
Abdication (from The Latin Ab Dicatio), In General Is The Act Of Re Nouncing And Giving Up An Office By The Voluntary Act Of The Party Who Holds It. The Term Is Now Generally Applied To The Giving Up Of The Kingly Office ; And In Some Countries A King ...

Abeyance
Abeyance Is A Legal Term, Derived From The French Bayer, Which, Says Ri Chelet, Means To "look At Anything With Mouth Wide Open." Coke (co. Litt. 342, B.) Explains The Term Thus, " Ea Abeiance, That Is, In Expectation, Of The French Bayer To Expect. For When A Parson Dieth, ...

Abjuration
Abjuration (of The Realm) Sig Nifies A Sworn Banishment, Or The Taking Of An Oath To Renounce And Depart From The Realm For Ever. By The Ancient Com Mon Law Of England, If A Person Guilty Of Any Felony, Excepting Sacrilege, Fled To A Parish Church Or Churchyard For Sanc ...

Abjuration_2
Abjuration (oath Y). This Is An Oath Asserting The Title Of The Present Royal Family To The Crown Of England. It Is Imposed By 13 Will. Iii. C. 6; 1 Geo. I. E. 13 ; And 6 Geo. Iii. C. 53. By Thip Oath The Juror Recognises The Right Of ...

Aborigines
Aborigines, A Term By Which We Denote The Primitive Inhabitants Of A Coun Try. Thus, To Take One Of The Most Striking Instances, When The Continent And Islands Of America Were Discovered. They Were Found To Be Inhabited By Various Races Of People, Of Whose Immigration Into Those Regions We ...

Absentee
Absentee. This Is A Term Applied, Generally By Way Of Reproach, To That Class Of Capitalists Who Derive Their In Come From One Country, And Reside In Another Country, In Which They Expend Their Income. We Here Propose To State Some Of The More Material Points In The Controverted Question, ...

Accountant General
Accountant-general, An Offi Cer Of The Court Of Chancery, First Ap Pointed Under An Act (12 Geo. I. C. 32) "for Securing The Moneys And Effects Of The Suitors." The Act Recites That Ill Consequence And Great Prejudice Already Had And Might Again Ensue To The Suitors By Having Their ...

Accumulation
Accumulation. An Act Of Par Liament (39 & 40 Geo. Iii. C. 98), After Declaring In The Preamble That "it Is Ex Pedient That All Dispositions Of Real Or Personal Estates, Whereby The Profits And Produce Thereof Are Directed To Be Accu Mulated Or The Enjoyment Thereof Post Poned, Should ...

Acton Burnel
Burnel, Acton, Statute Op. This Statute Was Passed At Acton Burnet, In Shropshire, At A Parliament Held By Edward I. In The Eleventh Year Of His Reign, On His Return From Wales. Acton Burnet Was Never Even A Market-town, And Leland Says (itin. Vii. 19) That The Parliament Was Held ...

Actuary
Actuary, A Word Which, Properly Speaking, Might Mean Any Registrar Of A Public Body, But Which Is Generally Used To Signify The Manager Of A Joint-stock Company Under A Board Of Directors, Particularly Of An Insurance Company ; Whence It Has Come To Stand Generally For A Person Skilled In ...

Adjudication
Adjudication, In The Law Of Debtor And Creditor In Scotland, Is A Pro Cess For Attaching Heritable Or Real Pro Perty. It Is Applicable Not Merely To Land And Its Accessories, But To All Rights " Bearing A Tract Of Future Time," As An Nuities, Pensions, Lands, &c. ; And ...

Adjustment
Adjustment, In Marine Insurance, Is The Settling And Ascertaining The Exact Amount Of Indemnity Which The Party Insured Is Entitled To Receive Under The Policy, After All Proper Allowances And Deductions Have Been Made ; And Fixing The Proportion Of That Indemnity Which Each Underwriter Is Liable To Bear. The ...

Administration
Administration And Adminis Trator. An Administrator Is A Person Appointed By The Ordinary Or Bishop Of The Diocese To Make Administration Of Or To Distribute The Goods Of A Person Who Dies Without Having Made A Will. It Is Said That, In Very Early Times, The King Was Entitled In ...

Admiral
Admiral, The Title Of The Highest Class Of Naval Officers. Various Fanciful Etymologies Of The Word Have Been Given ; But The Word Is Said To Be Merely A Cor Ruption Of The Arabic Amir Or Emir, A Lord Or Chieftain. The Al Is The Arabic Definite Article Al (the), ...

Admiralty Courts
Admiralty Courts Are Courts Which Have Jurisdiction Over Maritime Causes, Whether Of A Civil Or Criminal Nature. In England, The Court Of Ad Miralty Is Held Before The Lord High Admiral Or His Deputy, Who Is Called The Judge Of The Court: When There Was A Lord High Admiral, The ...

Adoption
Adoption, From The Latin Adoptio. By The Roman Law, If A Person Had No Children Of His Own, He Might Make Those Of Any Other Person His Children By Adoption. The Relation Of Father And Son At Rome Originally Differed Little From That Of Master And Slave. Hence, If A ...

Adult Schools
Adult-schools Are Establish Ments For Instructing In Reading And Other Branches Of Knowledge Those Per Sons Who Have Not Been Educated In Their Youth. Thirty Or Forty Years Since, There Were Numerous Schools For Adult Instruc Tion In Reading And Writing; But At The Present Time, And For Some Years ...

Adulteration
Adulteration (from The Latin •dulteratio) Is The Use Of Ingredients In The Production Of Any Article, Which Are Cheaper And Not So Good, Or Which Are Not Considered So Desirable By The Con Senter As Other Or Genuine Ingredients For Which They Are Substituted. The Sense Of The Latin Word ...

Adultery
Adultery (from The Latin Adul Terium) According To English Law Is The Sexual Connection Of A Man, Whether Married Or Single, With Another Man's Wife ; Or Of A Married Man With An Un Married Woman. If Both The Adulterer And The Adulteress Are Married, It Is Some Times Called ...

Advertisement
Adve'rtisement (from The French Avertissement, Which Properly Sig Nifies A Giving Notice, Or The Announce Ment, Of Some Fact Or Facts). In The English, Scotch, And Irish Newspapers, And Other Periodical Works, There Are Annually Published Nearly Two Millions Of Announcements Which, Whatever Be Their Peculiar Character, Are Known By ...

Advocate
Advocate, From The Latin Advo Calus. The Origin Of Advocates In Rome Was Derived From An Early Institution, By Which Every Head Of A Patrician House Had A Number Of Dependants, Who Looked Up To Him As A Protector, And In Return Owed Him Certain Obligations. This Was The Relation ...

Advowson
Advowson Is The Right Of Present Ing A Fit Person To The Bishop, To Be By Him Instituted To A Certain Benefice Within The Diocese, Which Has Become Vacant. The Person Enjoying This Right Is Called The Patron (patronus, Advocatus) Of The Church, And The Right Is Termed, In Law ...

Affinity
Affinity (from The Latin Adfirdias) Means A Relationship By Marriage. The Husband And Wife Being Legally Considered As One Person, Those Who Are Related To The One By Blood Are Related To The Other In The Same Degree By Qfflniry. This Re Lationship Being The Result Of A Lawful Marriage, ...

Affirmation
Affirmation Is The Solemn Asse Veration Made By Quakers, Moravian, And Separatists, In Cases Where An Oath Is Required From Others. This Indulgence Was First Introduced By The Statute 7 & 8 Wm. Iii. C 34, Which Enacts That The Solemn Affirmation Of Quakers In Courts Of Justice Shall Have ...

Agent
Agent (from The French Agent, And That From The Latin Agens). An Agent Is A Person Authorized By Another To Do Acts Or Make Engagements In His Name ; And The Person Who So Authorizes Him Is Called The Principal. An Agent Cannot Be Appointed To Bind Ais Principal By ...

Agrarian Laws
Agrarian Laws (agmrite Le Ges). Those Enactments Were Called Agrarian Laws By The Romans Which Re Lated To The Public Lands (ager Publicus). The Objects Of These Agrarian Laws Were Various. A Law (lex) For The Establish Ment Of A Colony And The Assignment Of Tracts Of Land To The ...

Agriculture
Agriculture (from The Latin Agriculture). The Economical Relation Of Agriculture To Other Branches Of Indus Try Is The Subject Of The Following Re Marks. The Question Has Sometimes Been Pro Pounded Whether Agriculture Or Manu Factures Are More Useful To A State, Or, In Other Words, Whether Agriculture Or Other ...

Aide De Camp
Aide-de-camp, A French Term, De Noting A Military Officer Usually Of The Rank Of Captain, One Or More Of Whom Is Attached To Every General Officer, And Con Veys All His Orders To The Different Parts Of His Command. A Field-marshal Is En Titled To Four, A Lieutenant-general To Two, ...

Alderman
Alderman. This Word Is Front The Ealdorman Or Eoldorman. The Term Ealdorman Is Composed Of Ealdor, Originally The Comparative Degree Of The Adjective Eald, Old,' And Man ; But The Word Wider Was Also Used By The Anglo Saxons As A Substantive, And As Such It Was Nearly Synonymous With ...

Ale Conner
Ale-conner. An Ale-conner Is An Ale-kenner, One Who Kens Or Knows What Good Ale Is. The Office Of Ale-taster Or Ale-conner Is One Of Great Antiquity. Those Who Held It Were Called " Gusta Tores Cervisise." Ale-conners Or Ale Tasters Were Regularly Chosen Every Yeaf In The Court-leet Of Each ...

Alehouses
Alehouses. By The Common Law Of England, A Person Might Open A House For The Sale Of Beer And Ale As Freely As He Might Keep A Shop For The Purpose Of Selling Any Other Commodity; Subject Only To A Criminal Prosecution For A Nui Sance If His House Was ...

Alien
Alien. An Alien Is One Who Is Born Out Of The Ligeance (allegiance) Of The King. (littleton, 198.) The Word Is Derived From The Latin Alienus ; But The Word Used By The English Or Other Law Writers In Latin Is Alienegena. The Con Dition Of An Alien, According To ...

Alimony
Alimony (from The Latin Alimonium Or Alimonia, A Word Which Is Used By The Classical Writers, And Signifies " Mainte Nance Or Support "). By The Law Of Eng Land A Wife Is Presumed To Have Surren Dered The Whole Of Her Property To Her Husband Upon Marriage, And Consequently ...

Allotment System
Allotment System, The Prac Tice Of Dividing Land In Small Portions For Cultivation By Agricultural Labourers And Other Cottagers At Their Leisure, And After They Have Performed Their Ordinary Day's Work. There Are Some Instances Of This Plan Having Been Resorted To About The Close Of Last Century, But It ...

Almanac
' Almanac. The Derivation Of This Word Has Given Some Trouble To Gram Marians. The Most Rational Derivation Appears To Be From The Two Arabic Words Al, The Article, And Mana Or Manah, To Count. An Almanac, In The Modern Sense Of The Word, Is An Annual Publication, Giving The ...

Almoner
Almoner, Once Written Aumner And Amner, Was An Officer In A King's, Prince's, Prelate's, Or Other Great Man's Household, Whose Business It Was To Dis Tribute Alms To The Poor. Previous To The Dissolution Every Great Monastery In England Had Its Almoner. The Almoner Of The King Of France Was ...

Ambassador
Ambassador (directly From The French Ambassadeur), Is The Term Com Monly Used To Designate Every Kind Of Diplomatic Minister Or Agent. The Word Ambassador Is Sometimes Written With An E, A Form Which The English Always Use In The Word Embassy. Spelman Derives Ambassador From Ambactns, A Word Used By ...

Amnesty
Amnesty Is A Word Derived From The Greek Amnatia, Which, Literally, Signifies Nothing More Than Non Remembrance. The Word Amnestia Is Not Used By The Earlier Greek Writers ; But The Thing Intended By It Was Ex Pressed By The Verbal Form Oa Tamely). The Word Ikµvnaria Occurs In Plutarch ...

Amphictyons
Amphi'ctyons ('apparroosss), Members Of A Celebrated Council In An Cient Greece, Called The Amphictyonic Council. According To The Popular Story, This Council Was Founded By Amphictyon, Son Of Deucalion, Who Lived, If He Lived At All, Many Centuries Before The Trojan War. It Is Supposed, By A Writer Quoted By ...

Anarchy
Anarchy (from The Greek Araf'x' Anarchia, Absence Of Government) Pr Perly Means The Entire Absence Of Poli Cal Government ; The Condition Of A A Lection Of Human Beings Inhabiting T] Same Country, Who Are Not Subject To Common Sovereign. Every Body Persons Living In A State Of Nature (as ...

Anatomy Act
Anatomy Act. Before The Pass Ing Of 2 & 3 Will. Iv. C. 75, On The 1st Of August, 1832, The Medical Profession Was Placed In A Situation At Once Anoma Lous And Discreditable To The Intelligence Of The Country. The Law Rendered It Illegal For The Medical Practitioner Or ...

Ancient Corn Trade
Corn-trade, Ancient. The Production Of Corn, One Of The Chief Neces Saries Of Life, And Its Commercial Exchange, Have Been A Subject Of The First Importance In All Ages. It Is Proposed Here To State Briefly The General Nature Of The Trade In Corn Among Two Of The States Of ...

Annals
Annals, In Latin Annales, Is De Rived From Anus, A Year. Cicero, In His Second Book, ' On An Orator' (de Oratore, 12), Informs Us, That From The Commencement Of The Roman State Down To The Time Of Publius Mucius, It Was The Custom For The Pontifex Maximus Annu Ally ...

Annuity
Annuity. An Annuity Consists In The Payment Of A Certain Sum Of Money Yearly, Which Is Charged Upon The Per Son Or Personal Estate Of The Individual From Whom It Is Due ; If It Is Charged Upon His Real Estate, It Is Not An Annuity, But A Rent. [rent.] ...

And Marriage Registration Of
Registration Of Births. Deaths, And Marriage& Par Ish Registers Were Not Kept In England Till After The Dissolution Of The Monasteries. The 12th Article Of The Injunctions Issued By Cromwell, Henry The Eighth's Secre Tary, In 1538, Directs That Every Clergy Man Shall, For Every Church, Keep A Book Wherein ...