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aids, lord, lords, latin, aides-de-camp, eldest and feudal

AIDE-DE-CAMP, a French term, de noting a military officer usually of the rank of captain, one or more of whom is attached to every general officer, and con veys all his orders to the different parts of his command. A field-marshal is en titled to four, a lieutenant-general to two, and a major-general to one. The king appoints as many aides-de-camp as he pleases, and this situation confers the rank of colonel. In January, 1844, the number of aides-de-camp to the queen was thirty-two. There were also eleven naval aides-de-camp to the queen, one of whom, of the rank of admiral, is styled first and principal aide-de-camp, and has a salary of 3651. per annum ; and ten others, of the rank of captain, have 182/. I Is. per annum. There are also two aides-de-camp appointed by the queen from the officers of the Royal Marines, whose salary is the same as that of the naval aides-de-camp.

AIDS (directly from the French Aides, which in the sense of a tax is used only in the plural number). Under the feudal system, aids were certain claims of the lord upon the vassal, which were not so directly connected with the tenure of land as reliefs, fines, and escheats. The nature of these claims, called, in the Latin of the age, Auxilia, seems to be indicated by the term : they were originally rather extraordinary grants or contributions than demands due ac cording to the strict feudal system, though they were certainly founded on the relation of lord and vassal. These aids varied according to local custom, and became in course of time oppressive exactions. In France there were aids for the lord's expedition to the Holy Land, for marrying his sister and eldest son, and for paying a relief to his suzerain on taking possession of his land. The aids which are mentioned in the Grand Cons tumier of Normandy for knighting the lord's eldest son, for marrying his eldest daughter, and for ransoming the lord from captivity, were probably introduced into England by the Normans. But other aids were also established by usage or the exactions of the lords, for, by Magna Charts, c. 12, it was provided that the king should take no aids, except the three above mentioned, without the consent of parliament, and that the inferior lords should not take any other aids.

The three kinds of aids above men tioned require a more particular notice, as this contribution of the vassal to the lord forms a striking feature in the feudal system of England.

1. When the lord made his eldest son a knight ;—this ceremony occasioned con siderable expense, and entitled the lord to call upon his tenant for extraordinary assistance. 2. When the lord gave his eldest daughter in marriage, he had her portion to provide, and was entitled to claim a contribution from his tenants for this purpose. The amount of these two kinds of aid was limited to a certain sum by the Statute of Westminster 1, 3 Ed. I. a 36, namely, at 20s. for a knight's fee, and at 20s. for every 201. per annum value of socage lauds, and so on in pro portion. It was also provided that the aid should not be levied to make his son a knight until he was fifteen years old, nor to marry his daughter until she was seven years old. 3. The third aid, which was to ransom the lord when taken prisoner, was of less frequent occurrence than the other two, and was uncertain in amount ; for if the lord were taken pri soner, it was necessary to restore him, however exorbitant the ransom might be. In the older treatises on feudal tenures there is much curious matter upon the various kinds of aids. Aids for knighting the lord's son and marrying the lord's daughter are abolished by the stat. 12 Car. II. c. 24, and the aid for ransoming the lord's person is obsolete.

Aids is also a general name for the extraordinary grants which are made by the House of Commons to the crown for various purposes. In this sense, aids, subsidies, and the modern term supplies, are the same thing. The aids were in fact the origin of the modern system of taxation.

Auxilia is the Latin word used by Bracton and other writers when they are speaking of the feudal aids above enu merated. The word Aide is not derived from the Latin Auzilium, but from the Low Latin Adiuda. (Du Cange, Gloss. Med. et lqfini. Latin.) The Spanish form ayuda, assistance,' and the Italian aiuto, also clearly indicate the origin of the word aide,' which is from the par ticipal form adjuta of the Latin verb adjuvare.