Home >> Cyclopedia Of Knowledge >> Anti Corn Law League to Barrister

Cyclopedia of Knowledge

Anti Corn Law League
League, Anti-corn Law, An Association The Object Of Which Was To Ob Tain By Constitutional Means The Abolition Of The Duty On The Importation Of Foreign Corn. The Anti-corn Law League Originated At A Public Dinner Given To Dr. Bowring, At Manchester, 18th September, 1838, When It Was Proposed That ...

Apanage
Apanage ( Apanagium, Apanamen Turn), The Provision Of Lands Or Feudal Superiorities Assigned By The Kings Of France For The Maintenance Of Their Younger Sons. Some Of The Proposed Etymologies Of The Word Apanage Are Mentioned By Rich Elet, Dictionnazre De La Langue Frangoise. The Prince To Whom The Portion ...

Appeal
Appeal. This Word Is Derived Im Mediately From The French Appel Or Apel, Which Is From The Latin Appellatio. The Word Appellatio, And The Correspond Ing Verb Appellate, Had Various Juridical Signification Among The Romans. It Was Used To Signify A Person's Applying To The Tribunes For Their Protection ; ...

Appeal
Appeal, In The Old Criminal Law Of England, Was A Vindictive Action At The Suit Of The Party Injured, In Which Suit The Appellant. Instead Of Merely Seeking Pecuniary Compensation, As In Civil Ac Tions, Demanded The Punishment Of The Criminal. It Differed From An Indictment In Some Material Points. ...

Apprentice
Apprentice (from The French Ap Prenti, Which Is From The Verb Apprendre, To Learn) Signifies A Person Who Is Bound By Indenture To Serve A Master For A Cer Tain Term, And Receives, In Return For His Services, Instruction In His Master's Pro Fession, Art, Or Occupation. In Addition To ...

Approver
Approver. By The Old English Law, When A Person Who Had Been Ar Rested, Imprisoned, And Indicted For Trea Son Or Felony, Confessed The Crime Charged In The Indictment, And Was Admitted By The Court To Reveal On Oath The Accom Plices Of His Guilt, He Was Called An Ap ...

Arbitration
Arbitration. In Scotland The Sys Tem Of Arbitration Is A Modification Of That Of The Roman Law. The Submission, By Which The Parties Agree To Abide By The De Cision Of An Arbiter, Is A Regularly Executed Contract, And It Requires All The Solemni Ties Peculiar To The Execution Of ...

Arbitration
Arbitration Is The Adjudication Upon A Matter In Controversy Between Private Individuals Appointed By The Par Ties. This Mode Of Settling Differences Is Very Frequently Resorted To As A Means Of Avoiding The Delay And Expense Of An Action At Law Or A Snit In Equity. It Has The Advantage ...

Archdeacon
Archdeacon. In Contemplating The Character And Office Of The Bishop In The Early Ages Of The Church, We Are Not To Regard Him As A Solitary Person Acting Alone And Without Advice. He Had A Species Of Clerical Council Around Him, Persons Who Lived A Kind Of Collegiate Life In ...

Aristocracy
Aristocracy, From The Greek Aristocrdtia (dpurronparia), According To Its Etymology, Means A Government Of The Best Or Most Excellent (iipurrot). This Name, Which, Like Optimates In Latin, Was Applied To The Educated And Wealthy Class 1 In The State, Soon Lost Its Moral And Ob Tained A Purely Political Sense ...

Army
Army. The Word Army, Like Many Other Military Terms, Has Come To Us From The French. They Write It Armee, " The Armed," The " Men In Arms," Which Is Pre Cisely What The English Word Army Means. An Army Is Ill Defined By Locke To Be A Collection Of ...

Arraignment
Arraignment. This Word Is De Rived By Sir Matthew Hale From Arrai Boner, Ad Ration Em Ponere, To Call To Account Or Answer, Which, In Ancient Law French, Would Be Ad-resoner, Or, Abbreviated, A Resner. Conformably To This Etymology, Arraignment Means Nothing More Than Calling A Person Accused To The ...

Arrestment
Arrestment In The Law Of Scot Land Is A Process By Which A Creditor May Attach Money Or Moveable Property Which A Third Party Holds For Behoof Of His Debtor. It Bears A General Resemblance To Foreign Attachment By The Custom Of London. Pittachment.] The Person Who Uses It Is ...

Assiento Treaty
Assiento Treaty; In Spanish, El Asiento De Los Negros, And El Facto Or Tratado Del Asiento, That Is, The Compact For The Farming, Or Supply, Of Negroes. It Is Plain That The Word Assiento, Though Oc Casionally Signifying An Assent Or Agree Ment, Cannot, As Is Sometimes Stated, Have That ...

Assign
Assign E Of A Lease Is The Party To Whom The Whole Interest Of The Lessee Is Transferred By Assignment, Which Assign Ment May Be Made Without The Privity Or Consent Of The Lessor, Unless The Lessee Is Restrained By The Lease From Assigning Over. The Assignee Becomes Liable To ...

Assignat
Assignat. One Of The Earliest Financial Measures Of The Constituent Assembly, In The French Revolution, Was To Appropriate To National Purposes The Landed Property Of The Clergy, Which, Upon The Proposition Of Mirabeau, Was, By A Large Majority, Declared To Be At The Disposition Of The State. (thiers, Taire De ...

Assignment
Assignment, A Deed Or Instrument Of Transfer, The Operative Words Of Which Are To " Assign, Transfer, And Set Over," And Which Transfers Both Real And Per Sonal Property. Estates For Life And Es Tates For Years Are The Principal Interests In Land Which Are Passed By An Assign Ment ...

Assignment_2
Assignment. The Term Assign.. Ment Is In Colloquial Use In Scotland, But The Word Which Supplies Its Place In Legal Nomenclature Is Assignation. In Some Instances, However, Where Statutes Employing The Phraseology Of The Eng Lish Law Have Been Extended To Scot Land, The Word Assignment Has Neces Sarily Obtained ...

Associations Societies
Societies, Associations. The Great Increase Of Societies Or Knocks. Bons For All Kinds Of Purposes Is Chars°. Teristie Of The Present Condition Of Euro Peans In Europe And Of Europeans Who Have Settled In Other Parts Of The World. Association For Particular Objects Is Analogous To The Great Associations Of ...

Asylum
Asylum, The Latin And English Form Of The Greek ''ae-uxov, Which Is Generally Supposed To Be Made Up Of A Privative And The Root Of The Verb Creadoi, "to Plunder," And Therefore To Signify, Pro Perly, A Place Free From Robbery Or Vio Lence, But This Etymology Is Doubtful. Some ...

Attainder
Attainder, From The Latin Word Attinetus," Attaint," "stained," Is A Con Sequence Which The Law Of England Has Attached To The Passing Of Sentence Of Death Upon A Criminal. Attainder Does Not Follow Upon Mere Conviction Of A Capital Offence ; Because, After Conviction, The Judgment May Still Be Arrested, ...

Attorney
Attorney Is A Person Substituted ( Atourne; Attornatus), From Atourner, Attor Aare, To Substitute, And Signifies One Put In The Place Or Turn Of Another To Manage His Concerns. He Is Either A Private At Torney, Authorised To Make Contracts, And Do Other Acts For His Principal, By An In. ...

Attorney General
Attorney-general. The At Torney-general Is A Ministerial Officer Of The Crown, Specially Appointed By Letters Patent He Is The Attorney For The King, And Stands In Precisely The Same Relation To Him That Every Other Attorney Does To His Employer. The Addition Of The Term " General" To The Name ...

Aubaine
Aubaine, The Name Of The Preroga Tive By Which The Kings Of France Formerly Claimed The Property Of A Stranger Who Died Within Their Kingdom, Not Having Been Naturalized. It Also Extended To The Property Of A Foreigner Who Had Been Naturalized, If He Died Without A Will, And Had ...

Auction
Auction, A Method Employed For The Sale Of Various Descriptions Of Pro Perty. This Practice Originated With The Romans, Who Gave It The Descriptive Name Of Auctio, An Increase, Because The Property Was Publicly Sold To Him Who Would Offer Most For It. In More Modern Times A Different Method ...

Auctioneer
Auctioneer, A Person Whose Pm. Fession Or Business It Is To Conduct Sales By Auction. It Is His Duty, Previously To The Commencement Of Every Sale, To State The Conditions Under Which The Property Is Offered; To Receive The Respective Bid Dings; And To Declare The Termination Of The Sale ...

Auditor
Auditor Is The Latin Word Auditor, Which Simply Means "a Hearer." The Use Of The Word To Signify One Who Exa Mines Into The Accounts And Evidences Of Expenditure Has Probably Not Been Long Established. The Word " Audit," As In The Phrase To "audit Accounts," And The " Au ...

Aulic Council
Aulic Council Was Instituted By The Emperor Maximilian I., In 1500. Towards The Close Of The 15th Century, The Progress Of The Turks Alarmed The Princes Of Germany, And Led Them To Feel More Strongly Than Ever The Necessity Of Sacrificing Their Petty Quarrels, And Of Uniting In Order To ...

Average
Average Is A Quantity Intermediate To A Number Of Other Quantities, So That The Sum Total Of Its Excesses Above Those Which Are Less, Is Equal To The Sum Total Of Its Defects From Those Which Are Greater. Or, The Average Is The Quantity Which Will Remain In Each Of ...

Average_2
Average, In Marine Insurance. If Any Part Of The Ship Or Furniture, Or Of The Goods, Is Sacrificed For The Sake Of Saving The Rest, All Parties Interested Must Contribute Towards The Loss. This Contri Bution Is Properly Called "average." It Is Sometimes Called General Average, In Opposition To Special ...

Avocat
Avocat, A French Word, Derived From The Latin Advocates, And Correspond Ing To The English `counsellor At Law.' [advocate.] From The Middle Of The Fourteenth Century The Avocets Were Dis Tinguished Into Avocets. Plaidans,' Who Answer To Our Barristers, And Avocets Consultans,' Called Also Juris-consultes,' A Kind Of Chamber-counsel, Who ...

Bachelor
Bachelor, An Unmarried Man. The Legislation Of The Romans Placed Un Married Persons (caelibes) Under Certain Disabilities, The Chief Of Which Were Con Tained In The Lex Julia Et Papia Poppeea. The Original Lex Was Simply Called Julia, And Was Passed A.c. 18. (dion Cassius, Liv. 16.) The Lex Papia ...

Bailiff
Bailiff Signifies A Keeper Or Super Intendent, And Is Directly Derived From The French Word Bailli, Which Appears To Come From Ballivus, And That From Be Galus, A Latin Word Signifying Generally A Governor, Tutor, Or Superintendent, And Also Designating An Officer At Constanti Nople Who Had The Education And ...

Bailliage
Bailliage, A French Term Equiva Lent With Bailiwick, A District Or Portion Of Territory Under The Jurisdiction Of An Officer Called A Bailiff. This Term Was More Especially Appropriated To Certain Sub-governments Of Switzerland, Which At The Time Coxe Wrote His Travels Were Of Two Sorts: The One Consisting Of ...

Balance Of Power
Balance Of Power. The No Tion Upon Which This Phrase Is Fo'unded Appears To Be The Following :—when A Number Of Separate And Sovereign States Have Grown Up Beside Each Other, The Entire System Which They Constitute May Be Conceived To Be Evenly Balanced, So Long As No Single State ...

Balance Of Trade
Balance Of Trade. In A Tract Published In 1677, Called England's Great Happiness,' Which Is Quoted By Mr. M'culloch In The Introductory Dis Course To His Edition Of Smith's Wealth Of Nations,' Is The Following Dialogue Be Tween "complaint" And " Content :"— " Complaint. What Think You Of The ...

Ballast
Ballast (danish, Baglast ; Ger Man, Dutch, And Swedish, Ballast ; French, Lest ; Italian, Savorra ; Spanish, Lastre ; Lastro ; Russian, Balast), A Term Used To Denote Any Heavy Material Placed In A Ship's Hold With The Object Of Sinking Her Deeper In The Water, And Of Thereby ...

Ballot
Ballot. [vortuo.j Ban, A Word Found In Many Of The Modern Languages Of Europe In Various Senses. But As The Idea Of "publication" Or "proclamation" Runs Through Them All, It Is Probable That It Is The Ancient Word Ban Still Preserved In The Gtelic And The Modern Welsh In The ...

Banishment
Banishment (from The French Bannissemeni), Expulsion From Any Coun Try Or Place By The Judgment Of Some Court Or Other Competent Authority. The Term Has Its Root In The Word Ban, A Word Of Frequent Use In The Middle Ages, Which Has The Various Signification Of A Public Edict Or ...

Banishmfnt1
[banishmf.nt.1 In Some Parts Of England, Before The Reformation, An Inferior Species Of Ban Ning Was Practised By The Parishfriests. " In The Marches Of Wales," Says Dal, In His Work Against The Romish Church, Entitled The Obedyence Of A Christen Man, 1534, " It Is The Manner, If Any ...

Bank
Bank, In Barbarous Latin Fiances, Literally Signifies A Bench Or High Seat; But As A Legal Term It Denotes A Seat Of Judgment, Or Tribunal For The Administra Tion Of Justice. In A Rade State Of Society, Justice Is Usually Administered In The Open Air, And The Judges Are Placed ...

Bankrupt
Bankrupt. [ Be Signed At This Meeting, At Which The Trader Must Be Present. The Syndics Op Pose Or Favour The Concordat As The Case May Be. The Concordat Requires The Consent Of A Majority Of The Creditors Who Also Represent Three-fourths Of The Whole Debts That Are Proved. There ...

Bankrupt
Bankrupt (banque-routier, A Bank Rupt, And Banque-route, Bankruptcy—from Lanus, The Table Or Counter Of A Trades Man, And Ruptus, Broken) Is A Merchant Or Trader Whose Property And Effects, On His Becoming Insolvent, Are Distributed Among His Creditors, Under That System Of Statutory Regulations Called The Bankrupt Laws. These Laws, ...

Banneret
Banneret, An English Name Of Dignity, Now Nearly If Not Entirely Ex Tinct. It Denoted A Degree Which Was Above That Expressed By The Word Miles Or Knight, And Below That Expressed By The Word Barn Or Baron. Milks, Speaking Of English Dignities, Says That The Banneret Was The Last ...

Barbarian
Barbarian. The Greek Term Me /japes (barbaros) Appears Originally To Have Been Applied To Language, Signifying A Mode Of Speech Which Was Waintelli Bible To The Greeks ; And It Was Perhaps An Imitative Word Intended To Represent A Confused And Indistinct Sound. (iliad, 867; And Strabo, Cited And Illustrated ...

Barber Surgeons
Barber-surgeons. In Former Times, Both In This And Other Countries, The Art Of Surgery And The Art Of Shaving Went Hand In Hand. As To The Barbiers Chirurgiens In France, See The Diction. Des Origins, Torn. I. P. 189. They Were Se Parated From, The Barbiers-perruquiers In The Time Of ...

Baronage
Baronage. This Term Is Used, Not So Much To Describe The Collective Body Of The Barons In The Restricted Sense Which Now Belongs To The Word As Siguifyin& A Component Part Of The Hereditary Nobility Of England, But The Whole Of That Nobi Lity Taken Collectively, Without Regard To The ...

Baronet
Baronet, An English Name Of Dig Nity, Which In Its Etymology Imports A Little Baron. But We Must Not Confound It With The Lesser Baron Of The Middle Ages [baron], With Which The Rank Of Baronet Has Nothing In Common ; Nor Again With The Banneret Of Those Ages [banneret] ...

Barony Baron
Baron, Barony. Sir Henry Spel Man (glossarium, 1626, Voce Baro) Re Gards The Word Baron As A Corruption Of The Latin Vir: But It Is A Distinct Latin Word, Used By Cicero, For Instance, And The Supposition Of Corruption Is Therefore Unnecessary. The Spanish Word Varon, And The Portuguese Bardo, ...

Barrister
Barrister. The Etymology Of This Word Has Been Variously Given By Dif Ferent Authors, And It Would Be Unprofitable To Enumerate The Fanciful Derivations Which Have Been Assigned To It. In French The Word Barreau, Which Signifies A Bar Of Wood Or Iron, Is Also Used To Sig Nify " ...