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Concl Ve Cardinal Catho Lic Church

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CONCL VE. [CARDINAL; CATHO LIC CHURCH. is the name given to a formal agreement between the see of Rome and any foreign government, by which the ecclesiastical discipline of the Roman Catholic clergy and the manage ment of the churches and benefices within the territory of that government are regu lated. It is, in fact, a diplomatic nego tiation and treaty concerning ecclesias tical affairs, which includes also tempo ralities belonging to the church. The frequent disputes between the popes and the various states of Europe touching the right of appointing to vacant sees and benefices, and also about the claims of the see of Rome to part, or in some cases the whole, of the revenues of vacant sees and livings, and of the first-fruits and tenths of those which it had filled, as well as the immunities claimed in various times and countries by the clergy and supported by Rome, such as exemption from taxation, and from the jurisdiction of the secular courts, the right of asylum for criminals in the churches, and other similar claims ; —all these have given occasion to concor dats between the popes and particular states, in order to draw a line between the secular and ecclesiastical jurisdictions, and thus put an end to controversy and scandal.

By the concordat of 1516 between Leo X. and Francis I. the king abolished the right exercised by the chapters of electing the respective bishops, a right assured to them by St. Louis and by the states of the kingdom under Charles VII. in 1438. The parliament refused for two years to register this concordat, as contrary to the spirit of the general councils and the liberties of the Galilean church ; it re gistered it at last March 19th, 1518, by express and repeated commands of the king.' (Gregoire, Essai Historique sur les Libertes de Gallivan.) Concordats have become most frequent since the middle of the eighteenth century, an epoch from which the European go vernments have made themselves more independent of the ecclesiastical power, and the popes have been for the most part men of an enlightened and conciliatory spirit. Benedict XIV., by a concordat with the King of Sardinia, in 1741, gave up to the king the right of nomination to benefices in various provinces of the Sar dinian kingdom, which the see of Rome had claimed till then, as well as the tem poralities of the same during a vacancy.

A concordat was made between the pope and Charles, King of Naples, about the same time, by which the property of the clergy became subject to taxation, and the episcopal jurisdiction in temporal matters was greatly limited. By another concordat between Clement XIV. and the King of Sardinia, the right of asylum to criminals in the churches was much re stricted, and full power was given to the respective bishops to expel and give up to the secular power those who were guilty of heinous offences. But the most celebrated concordat is that agreed upon between Cardinal Consalvi, in the name of Pius VII., and the first consul Bona parte, in July, 1801. By it the head of the state had the nomination to the vacant sees, but the pope was to confer canonical institution, and the bishops had the ap pointment to the parishes in their re spective dioceses, subject however to the approbation of the government. The clergy became subject in temporal matters to the civil power, just like laymen. All immunities, ecclesiastical courts, and juris dictions, were abolished in France, and even the regulations of the public worship and religious ceremonies, and the pastoral addresses of the clergy, were placed under the control of the secular authori ties. Most of these provisions remain in force in France to the present day. Re gulations nearly similar exist in Aus tria and other German states. Other concordats have been made with some of the Italian states. By that of 1818 with Naples the king proposes the bishops, sub ject to the pope's scrutiny, and the pope consecrates them ; the bishops have the right of censorship over the press, and the ecclesiastical courts are re-established for matters of discipline and for eccle siastical causes as defined by the council of Trent. Appeals to Rome are allowed. It appears from the above facts, that the ecclesiastical authority and influence iu Roman Catholic countries vary consider ably according to the concordats, if there be any, entered into with Rome, or accord ing to the civil regulations adopted and enforced by the respective governments towards the clergy as towards laymen.