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Census
Census. Before The First Enumera Tion Of The People Of This Country, In 1801, The Number Of The Population Was A Fruitful Topic With Party Writers. By Some It Was Contended. That England Was Far Less Populous Than It Had Been For Merly. Arthur Young, Writing In 1769, States (vol. ...

Certiorari
Certiorari, In Law, Is A Writ Issu Ing From One Of The Superior Courts, Di Recting The Judges Or Officers Of An Inferior Court To Transmit Or Cause To Be Certified (certiorari Facias) Records Or Other Pro Ceedings. The Object Of The Removal Is Either That The Judgment Of The ...

Cessio Bonorum
Ce'ssio Bono'rum, In The Law Of Scotland, Is The Name Given To A Process By Which, As By The Insolvency System In England, The Estate Of An Insolvent Person Who Does Not Come Within The Operation Of Mercantile Bankruptcy Is Attached And Distributed Among His Creditors. The Term Is Derived ...

Chamberlain
Chamberlain (custos Cubicu:i, Or Cubicularius, Keeper Of The Chamber). Cu. Bicularius Was The Roman Name For A Slave Whose Special Business Was To Look After The Rooms Or Chambers In The House, Introduce Visitors, And The Like. The Cubicularius Was Thus A Confidential Slave Or Freedman, As The Case Might ...

Chancel
Chancel. This Is Rather A Term Of Ordinary Discourse Than One Which Would Be Used In A Technical Description Of The Several Parts Of A Christian Church. As Far As We Have Observed, It Is Now Used To Denote That Part Of A Church In Which The Communion Table Or ...

Chancellor
Chancellor (in Latin, Cancelld Ring). The Primary Meaning Of Cancel Larius Is " Qui Ad Cancellos Assistit," One Who Is Stationed At The Lattice-work Of A Window Or A Door Way, To Introduce Visi Tors, &c. A Cancellarius In This Sense Was No More Than A Door-keeper. The Emperor Carinus ...

Chancellor Of Scotland
Chancellor Of Scotland, As In England, The Chancellor Of Scot Land Was Always A High Officer Of The Crown, And Had Great Influence With The King And Authority In His Councils. As In England Too, That Authority At Length Extended Itself Beyond Its Former Limits, And Affected The Whole Judicial ...

Chancery
Chancery (caned/aria); The Term Is Derived From Chancellor, Cancellarius, And Signifies The Court Where That Judge Exercises His Functions. There Are Several Chanceries, As There Are Several Chancel Lors; But The Place Where The Lord High Chancellor's Judicial Functions Are Exer Cised Is Called The High Court Of Chan Cery. ...

Chantry
Chantry (cantairia, In The Middle Age Latin), A Private Religious Foundation, Of Which There Were Many In England Before The Reformation, Established For The Purpose Of Keeping Up A Perpetual Succession Of Prayers For The Prosperity Of Some Particular Family While Living, And The Repose Of The Souls Of Those ...

Chapel
Chapel (infrench, Chapelle; Inlatin, Capella), A Word Common To Many Of The Languages Of Modern Europe, And Used To Designate An Edifice Of The Lower Rank Ap Propriated To Religious Worship. In England It Has Been Used To Desig Nate Minor Religious Edifices Founded Under Very Different Circumstances And For ...

Chaplain
Chaplain (capenanus, A Word Formed From The Middle Latin, Capella, Chapel). A Chaplain Is Properly A Clergy Man Officiating In A Chapel, In Contradis Tinction To One Who Is The Incumbent Of A Parish Church. But It Now Generally De. Signates Clergymen Who Are Either (1) Residing In Families Of ...

Charitable And Su Perstitious
Uses, Charitable And Su Perstitious. The Term Charitable Use' Has A Very Extensive Legal Meaning, And Includes Dispositions Of Property Which Are Not In Ordinary Language De Scribed As Charitable, But Which Are So Called With Reference To The Purposes Enu Merated In The Statute 43 Eliz. C. 4, Or ...

Charte
Charte, From Charta, " Paper," Was The Name Given Ti The Letters Of Franchise Granted By The Kings Of France During The Middle Ages To Several Towns And Communities, By Which They Were Put In Possession Of Certain Municipal Privileges, Such As The Free Election Of Their Local Magistrates And ...

Charter
Charter. This Word Is From The Latin Charta, A Word Of Uncertain Origin : The Greek Form Of The Word Is Charts. (xdpves). Charts Appears To Have Signi Fied Writing Material Made Of Papyrus. The Term Was Afterwards Applied Not Only To The Materials For Writing, Hut To The Writing ...

Chartists
Chartists, The Name Given To A Po Litical Party In This Country, Who Propose Extensive Alterations In The Representative System, As The Most Direct Means Of At Taining Social Improvement, And Whose Views Are Developed In A Document Called The " People's Charter." The Principal Points Of This Proposed Charter ...

Chattels
Chattels (in Law Latin, Catalla). This Term Comprehends All Moveable Pro Perty, And Also All Estates In Land Which Are Limited To A Certain Number Of Years Or Other Determinate Time. All Moveable Goods, As Horses, Plate, Money, And The Like, Are Called Chattels Personal. Es Tates Or Interests In ...

Cheque
Cheque, An Order On A Banker By A Person Who Has Money In The Bank, Direct Ing Him To Pay A Certain Sum Of Money To The Bearer Or To A Person Named In The Cheque, Which Is Signed By The Drawer. Cheques Are Immediately Payable On Presentment. They Are ...

Chiltern Hundreds
Chiltern Hundreds. A Portion Of The High Land Of Buckinghamshire Is Known By The Name Of The Chiltern Hills. "formerly These Hills Abounded In Timber, Especially Beech, And Afforded Shelter To Numerous Banditti. To Put These Down, And To Protect The Inhabitants Of The Neighbouring Parts From Their Depreda Tions, ...

Chimney Sweeper
Chimney - Sweeper, A Person Whose Trade It Is To Cleanse Foul Chim Neys From Soot. The Actual Sweepers Were Formerly Boys, Of Very Tender Age, Who Were Taught To Climb The Tines, And Who, From The Cruelties Often Practised Upon Them By Their Masters, Had For The Last Half-century ...

Church Rates
Church-rates Are Rates Raised, By Resolutions Of A Majority Of The Pa Rishioners In Vestry Assembled, From The Parishioners And Occupiers Of Land Within A Parish, For The Purpose Of Repairing, Maintaining, And Restoring The Body Of The Church And The Belfry, The Churchyard Fence, The Bells, Seats, And Ornaments, ...

Churchwardens
Churchwardens Are Parish Of Ficers, Who By Law Have A Limited Charge Of The Fabric Of The Parish Church, Of The Direction And Supervision Of Its Repairs, And Of The Arrangement Of The Pews And Seats. Certain Other Duties Are Imposed Upon Them On Particular Occasions. There Are Usually Two ...

Cinque Ports
Cinque Ports. It Is Stated By Jeake ('charters Of The Cinque Ports'), That In One Of The Records Of The Town Of Rye Is A Memorandum That " The Five Ports Were Enfranchised In The Time Of King Edward The Confessor ;" The Five Ports Here Intended, The Original Cinque ...

Circuits
Circuits (from The French Cir Cuit, Which Is From The Latin Circuitus, " A Going About"), In English Law, Denote The Periodical Progresses Of The Judges Of The Superior Courts Of Common Law Through The Several Counties Of England And Wales, For The Purpose Of Administer Ing Justice In Civil ...

Cities And Boroughs England
Cities And Boroughs. England And Wales.—the Want Of Any Uniform Basis Of Suffrage In The Liamentary Boroughs, The Endless Diversity Of The Claims To Its Exercise Derived From The Various Political As Well As Local In Fluences That Had Operated Upon Them In The Course Of Ages,—a Diversity Which The ...

Citizen
Citizen, From The French Word Citoyen, Which Remotely Comes From The Latin Civis. Aristotle Commences The Third Book Of His Politik' With An Investigation Of The Question, What Is A Citizen (woaltns)1 He Defines Him To Be One Who Participates In The Ju Dicial And Legislative Power In A State ...

City
City ( In French Cite, Ultimately From The Latin Atrium). Certain Large And Ancient Towns Both In England And In Other Countries Are Called Cities, And They Are Supposed To Rank Before Other Towns. On What The Distinction Is Founded Is Not Well Ascertained. The Word Seems To Be One ...

Civil List
Civil List. The Expenses Of The English Government, Including Military Expenses, Were Fornterly Comprehended In One General List, And Defrayed Out Of What Was Called The Royal Revenue. For A Con Siderable Period After The Conquest This Revenue, Derived From The Rents Of The Crown Lands, And From Other Sources, ...

Civilization
Civilization. The Words Civi Lization, Education, And Religion, With Many Others, Are Often Used Without Any Precise Ideas Being Attached To Them ; Yet There Are No Words That Require To Be More Thoroughly Analysed. The Meaning Of A Ward Is Often Formed By Degrees. As Soon As A Particular ...

Clergy
Clergy, A Collective Term, Under Which That Portion Of The Population Of A Country Is Comprehended Who Are In Holy Orders. It Is Used In Contradistinction To Laity, Which Comprehends All Other Per Sons. Like Most Ecclesiastical Terms, It Is Of Greek Origin, The Word Tanpuctis (clericus) Having Been Used ...

Clerk Of The Crown
Clerk Of The Crown In Chancery, Is An Officer Of The Crown In Attendance Upon Both Houses Of Par Liament, And Upon The Great Seal. In The House Of Lords He Makes Out And Issues All Writs Of Summons To Peers, Writs For The Attendance Of The Judges, Commissions To ...

Clerk Of The Peace
Clerk Of The Peace Is An Offi Cer Attached To Every County Or Division Of A County, City, Borough, Or Other Place In Which Quarter-sessions Are Held ; Being The Ministerial Officer Of The Court Of Quarter-sessions. He Is Appointed By The Custos Rotulorum Of The County, And Holds His ...

Client
Client (clients), Supposed By Some Writers To Be Derived From The Verb Clueo • But The Derivation Is Somewhat Doubtful. From The Origin Of Ancient Rome, There Appears To Have Existed The Relation Of Patronage (patronatus) And Client/kip (clientela). Romulus, The Founder Of Rome, Was, According To Tradition, The Founder ...

Coaches
Coaches. Carriers Of Goods Are Subjected To A Greater Degree Of Responsibility Than Mere Bailees For Hire, And That Responsi Bility Is Much More Extensive Than It Is In The Case Of Injuries To Passengers. By Ancient Custom (which Is Part Of The Com Mon Law Of This Country), A ...

Coal Trade
Coal Trade. The Quantity Of Coals Shipped Coastwise From Ports Of Great Britain To Other Ports Of Great Britain And To Ireland Amounted, In The Year 1843, To 7,447,084 Tons ; And The Quantity Exported To The British Colonies And To Foreign Countries In The Same Year Was 1,866,211 Tons ...

Codex Code
Code, Codex. The Original Mean Ing Of The Latin Word Caudex Or Codex Was The Trunk Or Stem Of A Tree. Before The Use Of More Convenient Materials, Wooden Tablets Were Employed By The Ancients For Writing On. Such A Written Tablet Was Called Codex, Of Which Codi Cillus Is ...

Coffee Trade
Coffee Trade (french, Cafe; German, Koffe, Koffebohnen ; Dutch, Koffy, Koffebomen ; Italian, Odle ; Spanish, Cafe; Turkish, Chaube; Swe Dish, Koffe ; Russian, Kofe). This Great Branch Of Commerce Has Been Wholly Created Since The Beginning Of The Eighteenth Century. Nearly All The Coffee Which Now Comes To Europe ...

Cognovit
Cogno'vit Is A Plea, In An Action At Law, Whereby The Defendant Acknowledges Or Confesses The Justice Of The Plaintiff's Demand Against Him (cognovit Actionenz). By This Plea A Trial Is Avoided And Judg Ment Is Entered Up For The Plaintiff. But Where The Action Is For Damages, This 1udgment ...

Coining
Coining. The Numerous And Com Plicated Laws Upon This Subject, Passed From Time To Time During Several Cen Turies, To Protect The Coin Of The Realm, Were Repealed By The 2 Will. Iv. C. 34. The Operation Of This Statute Is Confined To Great Britain And Ireland ; And The ...

College Of Surgeons
Surgeons, College Of. The Present College Of Surgeons Of England, Had Its Origin In The Company Of Barber Surgeons, Which Was Incorporated By Royal Charter In The First Year Of Edward Iv. By This Charter Of 1 Edward Iv., The Barbers Practising Surgery In London, Who Had Before Associated Themselves ...

Colonel
Colonel, The Commander Of A Regi Ment Or Battalion Of Troops ; He Is The Highest In Rank Of Those Called Field-offi Cers, And Is Immediately Subordinate To A General Of Division. The Derivation Of The Word Is Uncertain. It Is Supposed To Have Been Given Origi Nally To The ...

Colonial Agents
Colonial Agents. Most Of The British Colonies Have Agents In England, Whose Duties Do Not Appear To Be Very Accurately Defined. The Act Of 1843, Appointing An Agent For Jamaica, Recites, "that It Is Necessary The Inhabitants Of This Island Should Have A Person In Great Britain Fitly Qualified And ...

Colony
Colony (in Latin Colonia, A Word Derived From The Latin Verb ' Colo," Co Lere,' To Till Or Cultivate The Ground) Ori Ginally Signified A Number Of People Transferred From One Country Or Place To Another, Where Lands Were Allotted To Them. The People Themselves Were Called Coloni, A Word ...

Combination Laws
Combination Laws. The Laws Known By This Name Were Repealed In 1824. Till Then Any Combination Of Any Two Or More Masters, Or Of Any Two Or More Workmen, To Lower Or Raise Wages, Or To Increase Or Diminish The Number Of Hours Of Work, Or Quantity Of Work To ...

Commandery
Commandery, A Species Of Benefice Attached To Certain Foreign Military Or Ders, Usually Conferred On Knights Who Had Done Them Some Especial Service. According To Furetiere, These Comman Deries Were Of Different Kinds And De Grees, As The Statutes Of The Different Orders Directed. The Name Of Coin Mandery In ...

Commissary
Commissary, An Officer Who Is Delegated By A Bishop To Act In A Particu Lar Part Of The Diocese, To Exercise Juris Diction Similar In Kind To That Exercised By The Chancellor Of The Diocese In The Consistory Court Of The Diocese. A Com Missary Has, Generally Speaking, The Authority ...

Commission
Commission, In Military Affairs, Is The Document By Which An Officer Is Autho Rized To Perform Duty For The Service Of The State. In England In Former Times The Regular Mode Of Assembling An Army, Either To Resist An Invading Enemy, Or,to Accom Pany The King On A Foreign Expedition, ...

Committee Of Public Safety
Committee Of Public Safety, Comitd De Saint Publique, The Name Given To A Committee Of Mem Bers Of The National Convention, Who Exercised A Dictatorial Power In France For About Fifteen Months, Which Is Known By The Name Of The Reign Of Terror. The National Convention Having Abolished The Royal ...

Committees
Committees. By The Commons Is A Proceeding Of Great Im Portance, Involving The Exercise Of The Highest Judicial Powers By Parliament, And Though In Modern Times It Has Rarely Been Resorted To, In Former Periods Of Our History It Was Of Frequent Occurrence. The Earliest Instance Of Impeachment By The ...

Common Law
Common Law. In Its Most General Signification The Expression Common Law Denotes The Ordinary Law Of Any Country : When Used In This Sense It Is Called Com Mon, As Prevailing Generally Over A Whole Country, In Contradistinction To Particular Laws, The Operation Of Which Is Confined To A Limited ...

Company Of Apothecaries
Apothecaries, Company Of, One Of The Incorporated Companies Of The City Of London. The Word Apothecary Is From The French Apoticaire, Which Is Defined By Richelet To Be "one Who Prepares Medi Cines According To A Pre Scription." The Word Is From The Low Latin Apothecarius, And That Is From ...

Concl Ve Cardinal Catho
Concl Ve. [cardinal; Catho Lic Church. Is The Name Given To A Formal Agreement Between The See Of Rome And Any Foreign Government, By Which The Ecclesiastical Discipline Of The Roman Catholic Clergy And The Manage Ment Of The Churches And Benefices Within The Territory Of That Government Are Regu ...

Concubinage
Concubinage Is The Cohabitation Of A Man With A Woman, To Whom He Is Not United By Marriage. Augustus, With The View Of Preventing Celibacy And En Couraging Marriage, A.d. 9, Caused The Law Called Lex Julia And Papia Popptea To Be Passed, Which May Be Considered As Much An ...

Confederation Of The Rhine
Confederation Of The Rhine. The Confederation Of The Rhine Was Established By An Act, Signed At Paris On The 12th Of July, 1806, By The Kings Of Bavaria And Wirtemberg, The Elector Of Mainz, The Elector Of Baden, The Duke Of Cleves And Berg (murat), The Landgrave Of Hesse-darmstadt, The ...

Conscription
Conscription Is The Name Given To The Mode Of Recruiting The French Army Under The Republic And The Empire. Under The Old French Kingdom The Army Was Recruited Chiefly By Volun Tary Enlistment, And The Soldiers Were Taken Mostly From The Peasantry, By Whom The Change From The Condition Of ...

Conservators Of The Peace
Conservators Of The Peace, Before The Comparatively Modern Institu Tion Of Justices Of The Peace, Were Officers Who By The Common Law Of England Were Appointed For The Preservation Of The Pub Lic Peace. These Conservators, Whose Powers Were Far Inferior To Those Of Modern Justices Of The Peace, Consisting ...

Consideration
Consideration. This Is A Latin Word, " Consideratio," Which, As Well As The Verb " Considero," Was Used By Cicero And Others To Express " Careful Observa Tion," Or " Reflection," Or "deliberation Before Action." It Has Nothing To Do With Looking At The Stars, As The Latin Grammarian Festus ...

Constable
Constable. This Word Is Sup Posed By Ducange, Spelman, Cowell, And Other Legal Writers, To Be Corrupted From Comes Stabuli, Which Was Another Name For The Tribunus Stabuli, Or Praepositus Equorum, A Kind Of Master Of The Horse, Frequently Mentioned As An Officer Of State In The Middle Ages. (ducange, ...