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DOCTOR, one that has taken the highest degree in the faculties of Divinity, Law, Physic, or Music. In its original import it means a person so skilled in his particular art or science as to be qualified to teach it.

There is much difference of opinion as to the time when the title of Doctor was first created. It seems to have been tablished for the professors of the Roman law in the University of Bologna, about the middle of the twelfth century. tony h Wood says, that the title of tor in Divinity was used at Paris, after Peter Lombard had compiled his tences, about the year 1151. (Hist. and Antic'. Univ. of Orford, 4to. Oxf. 1792, 62.) Previously those who had ed in the faculties had been proceeded Masters only. The title of Doctor was not adopted in the English Uni versifies earlier than the time of John or Henry the Third. Wood cites several instances of the expense and magnificence which attended the early granting of the higher degrees in England in the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I. (Wood, tit suer. pp. 65, 66.) In Oxford the time requisite for the Doctor of Divinity's degree, subsequent to that of M.A., is eleven years : for a Doctor's of Civil Law, five years from the time at which the Bachelor of Laws' degree was conferred. Those who take this degree professionally, in order to practise in Doctors' Commons, are in dulged with a shorter period, and per mitted to obtain it at four instead of five years, upon making oath in convocation of their intentions so to practise. For the degree of M.D., three years must in tervene from the time of the candidate's having taken his Bachelor of Medicine's degree. For a Doctor's degree in Divi

nity or Law three distinct lectures are to be read in the schools, upon three differ ent days : but by a dispensation, first ob tained in convocation or congregation, all three are permitted to be read upon the same day ; so that by dispensation a single day is sufficient in point of time for these exercises. For a Doctor's degree in Medi cine, a dissertation upon some subject, to be approved by the Professor of Medicine, must be publicly recited in the schools, and a copy of it afterwards delivered to the Professor.

In Cambridge a Doctor of Divinity must be a Bachelor of Divinity of five, or an M.A. of twelve years' standing. The requisite exercises are one act, two oppo nencies, a Latin sermon And an English sermon. A Doctor of Laws must be a Bachelor of Laws of five years' standing. His exercises are one act and one oppo nency. Doctors of Physic proceed in the same manner as Doctor of Laws. For a Doctor's degree in music, in both Uni versities, the exercise required is the composition and performance of a solemn piece of music, to be approved by the Professor of the Faculty. (0.rj. and Camb. Calendars.) Coloured engravings of the dresses worn by the doctors of the several facul ties of Oxford and Cambridge will be found in A ckermann's History of the Univ. of Oxford, 4to., 1814, vol. ii. p. 259, et seq. ; and in his History of the Univ. of Cambridge, 4to., 1815, vol. ii. p. 312, et seq.