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Democracy
Democracy (snaonpatla), A Word Taken From The Greek Language, Like Aris Tocracy, Oligarchy, Monarchy, And Other Political Terms. The Third Book Of Herodotus (chap. 80-82) Contains What We May Consider To Be The Views Of The Oldest Extant Greek Historian On The Merits And Defects Of The Three Respective Forms ...

Denizen
Denizen, An Alien Born, Who Has Been Constituted An English Subject By Letters Of Denization Granted By The Crown Through The Home Secretary Of State. The Facilities For An Alien Becoming Natural Ized., Which The Act 7 & 8 Viet. C. 66, Provides, Will Render It Easier For Aliens To ...

Deodand
Deodand (deodanduns, What Is Due To God). The Word Deodand Expresses The Notion Of A Thing Forfeited, Because It Has Been The Immediate Cause Of Death. The Thing Forfeited Is Sometimes Called Deodand, Which Signifies Any Personal Chattel Which Is The Immediate Cause Of The Death Of A Human Being. ...

Department
Department (or In French Dec P A Rtem Ent), A Territorial Division Of France, Introduced By The States-general In The Reign Of Louis Xvi. A Commune Is The Smallest Territorial Division In The Present System Of France. In The Rural Districts And In The Smaller Towns A Commune May Be ...

Deposition
Deposition, In Its Extended Sense, Means The Act Of Giving Public Testimony, But As Applicable To English Law The Word Is Used To Signify The Testimony Of A Wit Ness In A Judicial Proceeding Reduced To Writing. Informations Upon Oath And The Evidence Of Witnesses Before Magistrates And Coroners Are ...

Deration
Deration.] Ancient Deeds Were Short, And Suited To The Simplicity Of The Times. When Trans Actions Became More Complicated, It Was Customary To Divide Deeds Into Several Formal Parts ; But It Is Not Necessary That A Deed Should Be So Divided : It May Be A Good Deed, If ...

Deration_2
Deration] ; And The Lycian Confedera Tion Which Is Described By Strabo (p. 664). The Roman System Of Foederate States (civitates Foederatae) Is Another Instance Of A Kind Of Confederation ; But It Was Of A Peculiar Kind, For Rome Was Neither Ab 1 Solutely Sovereign Over These States Nor ...

Descent
Descent, In English Law (from Discent, Norman French, And So Written In Our Older Law Books), May Be Defined To Be The Rule Of Law Pursuant To Which, On The Death Of The Owner Of An Estate Of Inherit Ance, Without Making Any Disposition Thereof It Descends To Another As ...

Deserter
Deserter, An Officer Or Soldier Who Either In Time Of Peace Or War, Abandons The Regiment, Battalion, Or Corps To Which He Belongs, Without Having Obtained Leave, And With The Intention Not To Return. The Word Deserter Is From The Roman Desertor, Which Had Various Meanings. A Soldier Who Did ...

Di Wan
Di Wan Is A Persian Word Familiar To Readers Of Works Relating To The East, In The Sense Of-1st, A Senate, Or Council Of State ; And, 2nd, A Collection Of Poems By One And The Same Author. The Ear Liest Acceptation, However, In Which We Find It Employed Is ...

Diplomatics
Diplomatics, From The Same Rod As Diplomacy, Is A Term Used To Express The Acquaintance With Ancient Documents Of A Public Or Political Character, And Especially Of The Determination Of Their Authenticity And Their Age. But The Ad Jective, Diplomatic, Is Usually Applied To Things Or Persons Connected Not With ...

Directoire Executif
Directoire Exe'cutif Was The Name Given To The Executive Power Of The French Republic By The Constitution Of The Year 3 (1795), Which Constitution Was Framed By The Moderate Party In The National Convention, Or Supreme Legis Lature Of France, After The Overthrow Of Robespierre And His Associates. [com Mittee ...

Discount
Discount, A Sum Of Money Deducted From A Debt In Consideration Of Its Being Paid Before The Usual Or Stipulated Time. The Circumstance On Which Its Fairness Is Founded Is, That The Creditor, By Receiving His Money Before It Comes Due, Has The Interest Of The Money During The Interval. ...

Distress
Distress, " Districtio," In The Juris Prudence Of The Middle Ages, Denotes Legal Compulsion Generally, Whether Ec Clesiastical Or Civil. One Mode Of Com Pulsion Extensively Adopted Among The Nations Of Teutonic Origin Was The Taking Possession Of The Whole Or A Part Of The Property Of The Offender Or ...

Dividend
Dividend, In Commerce, Is A Word Which Has Two Distinct Meanings. In Its More General Employment It Is Under Stood To Express The Money Which Is Divided, Pro Rata, Among The Creditors Of Abankrupt Trader, Out Of The Amount Real Ised From His Assets. [bankrupt.] The Other Meaning Attached To ...

Division Of Employments
Division Of Employments, In Political Economy, Is An Important Agent In Increasing The Productiveness Of Labour. It Is By Labour Alone That Wealth Is Produced. It Is A Law Of Man's Nature That " By The Sweat Of His Face He Shall Eat Bread ;" And In Return For His ...

Divorce
Divorce (from The Latin Word Di Vdrtium, A Divertendo, From Diverting Or Separating), The Legal Separation Of Hus Band And Wife. In England, Divorce Is Of Two Kinds : I Mensft Et Thoro, From Bed And Board ; And Is Vinculo Matrimouii, From The Bond Of The Marriage. The Di ...

Doctor
Doctor, One That Has Taken The Highest Degree In The Faculties Of Divinity, Law, Physic, Or Music. In Its Original Import It Means A Person So Skilled In His Particular Art Or Science As To Be Qualified To Teach It. There Is Much Difference Of Opinion As To The Time ...

Domesday Book
Domesday Book, The Register Of The Lands Of England, Framed By Order Of King William The Conqueror. It Was Sometimes Termed Rotulus Wintonia, And Was The Book From Which Judgment Was To Be Given Upon The Value, Tenures, And Services Of The Lands Therein Described. The Original Is Comprised In ...

Domicile
Domicile. In The Roman Law Domi Cile (domicilium) Was Defined To Be That Place Which A Person " Makes His Family Residence, And Principal Place Of Business ; From Which He Does Not Depart Unless Some Business Requires : When He Leaves It He Considers Himself A Wanderer, And When ...

Donatio Mortis Causa
Dona'tio Mortis Causa, A Gift Made In Prospect Of Death. The Doctrine Is Derived From The Roman Law, And A Donation Of This Kind Is Defined In The Institutes (ii., Tit. 7) As "a Gift Which Is Made Under An Apprehension Of Death, As When A Thing Is Given Upon ...

Dower
Dower Is That Part Of The Husband's Lands, Tenements, Or Hereditaments To Which The Wife Is Entitled For Her Life Upon The Husband's Death. Prior To The Reign Of Charles Ii. Five, And, Until The Passing Of The Act 3 & 4 Wm. Iv. C. 105, There Were Four Kinds ...

Drawback
Drawback Is A Term Used To Signify The Sum Paid Back On The Re-exportation Of Goods, Upon The Importation Of Which An Equal Sum Has Already Been Paid As Duty. A Drawback Is Also Allowed On The Exportation Of Articles Which Are Subject To Excise Duties. The Object Of This ...

Duelling
Duelling. The Rise Of The Prac Tice Of Duelling Is To Be Referred To The Trial By Battle Which Obtained In Early Ages, Jointly With The Single Combat Or Tournament Of The Age Of Chivalry, Which Again Most Probably Owed Its Own Exist Ence To The Early Trial By Battle. ...

Duke
Duke, The Title Given To Those Who Are In The Highest Rank Of Nobility In England. The Order Is Not Older In Eng Land Than The Reign Of King Edward Iii. Previously To That Reign Those Whom We Now Call The Nobility Consisted Of The Ba Rons, A Few Of ...

Earl
Earl. The Title Of Count Or Earl, In Latin Comes, Is The Most Ancient And Widely Spread Of The Subordinate Or Sub Ject Titles. This Dignity Exists Under Various Names In Almost Every Country In Europe. By The English It Is Called Earl, A Name Derived To Us From The ...

Earthen W Are
Earthen W Are. According To The Census Of 1841, The Number Of Persons In Great Britain Employed In This Im Portant And Most Useful Manufacture (' Pottery, China, And Earthenware,') Was 24,774, Of Whom 17,442 Were Re Turned For Staffordshire, Which Is The Great Seat Of The Manufacture. The Dis ...

Easement
Easement From The French Words Aise, Aisement, Ease) Is Defined By The Old Law Writers As A Service Or Convenience Which One Neighbour Path Of Another By Charter Or Prescription Without Profit ; As A Way Through His Ground, A Sink, Or The Like. It Includes Rights Of Common, Ways, ...

East India Company
East India Company. This Association Originated From The Subscrip Tions, Trifling In Amount, Of A Few Private Individuals. It Gradually Became A Com Mercial Body With Gigantic Means, And Next, By The Force Of Unforeseen Circum Stances, Assumed The Form Of A Sovereign Power, While Those By Whom It Was ...

Eator1
Eator.1 A Fa Er Could Appoint By Testament A Tutor For His Male Children Who Were Impuberes And In His Power ; He Could Also Appoint A Tutor For Females Who Were In His Power, Even If They Had Attained Puberty. He Could Also Appoint A Tutor For The Wife ...

Ecclesiastical Commission Ers For
Ecclesiastical Commission Ers For England. On The Ground That It Was " Expedient That The Fullest And Most Attentive Consideration Should Be Forthwith Given To Ecclesiastical Duties And Revenues," A Royal Commission Was Issued, Dated 4th February, 1835, Which Appointed Certain Commissioners, And Directed Them " To Consider The State ...

Ecclesiastical Courts
Ecclesiastical Courts. Courts In Which The Canon Law Is Admi Nistered [canon Law], And Causes Ec Clesiastical Determined. Coke, In Treat, Mg Of The Distinction Between Temporal And Spiritual Causes, Says :" And As In Temporal Causes, The King, By The Mouth Of His Judges In His Courts Of Justice, ...

Ecclesiastical Established Churchtions
Tions And Canons, Ecclesiastical ; Established Church, P. 848.) It De Nounced Severe Temporal And Spiritual Penalties Against The Puritan Divines, And Was Followed Up By Unsparing Persecu Tions. By 3 Jac. I. C. 4, 32, A Penalty Of 101. A Month Was Imposed On Any Per Son Who ...

Education
Education. In Every Nation, Even Those Called Uncivilized, There Are, And Ne Cessarily Must Be, Certain Practices And Usages According To Which Children Are In Structed In Those Things Which Are To Form The Occupation Of Their Future Life ; And Every Civilized Nation, And, We May Pre Sume, Nations ...

Election
Election Is When A Man Is Left To His Own Free Will To Take Or Do One Thing Or Another Which He Pleases (ter Mes De La Leg); And He Who Is To Do The First Act Shall Have The Election. If A Covenants To Pay B A Pound Of ...

Election Committees
Election-committees. The Course Of Elections Of Members Of The House Of Commons From The Issuing Of The Writs To The Returns Made To The Clerk Of The Crown Is Briefly Sketched Under The Head House Of Commons. The Clerk Of The Crown Certifies The Re Turns Made To Him To ...

Emigration
Emigration May Be Defined To Be A Man's Leaving His Native Country With All His Property To Settle Permanently In Another. Emigration Is Therefore Neces Sarily Implied In The Word Colonization, And It Is By The Terms Of Our Definition Easily Distinguished From A Man's Tempo Rary Absence From His ...

Emperor
Emperor, From The Latin Live Rater. Among The Early Romans The Title Of Imperator Was Bestowed By The Acclamations Of His Soldiers In The Camp On A Commander-in-chief Who Had Signal Ized Himself By A Victory. (tacit. Annal. Iii. 74.) In The Case Mentioned By Taci Tus, Tiberius Is Said ...

Endowed Schools
Schools, Endowed. An En Dowed School In England Is A School Which Was Established And Is Supported By Funds Given And Appropriated To The Perpetual Use Of Such School, Either By The King Or By Private Individuals. The Endowment Provides Salaries For The Master And Usher, If There Is One, ...